The Black Box Society: The Secret Algorithms That Control Money and Information

  title={The Black Box Society: The Secret Algorithms That Control Money and Information},
  author={Frank A. Pasquale},
Every day, corporations are connecting the dots about our personal behaviorsilently scrutinizing clues left behind by our work habits and Internet use. The data compiled and portraits created are incredibly detailed, to the point of being invasive. But who connects the dots about what firms are doing with this information? The Black Box Society argues that we all need to be able to do soand to set limits on how big data affects our lives. Hidden algorithms can make (or ruin) reputations, decide… 

The Secret in the Information Society

It is argued that the individual’s secrets should be saved from the ever-expanding digital transparency and the legitimate function of state secrecy in turn needs rescuing from a culture of secrecy and over-classification that has exploded in recent years.

Unboxing the Black Box of Artificial Intelligence: Algorithmic Transparency and/or a Right to Functional Explainability

This chapter discusses the application of transparency and explainability principles to artificial intelligence, considering the nature, the inherent obstacles and the risks associated with such application, in the light of the new regulatory framework, and provides a pragmatic explanation as to why and how the black box will not become another Pandora's Box.

Caught inside the black box: Criminalization, opaque technology, and the New York subway MetroCard

The criminalization of a practice of New York’s poor known as “selling swipes” performed by so-called “swipers” is examined, demonstrating fresh connections between technology and unequal outcomes in the U.S. criminal justice system, and suggests an emerging form of social vulnerability.

Opening the government’s black boxes: freedom of information and algorithmic accountability

It is concluded that governmental policies and practices related to algorithmic disclosure are inconsistent and suggest a need for better mechanisms to hold government algorithms accountable.

Automation, Algorithms, and Politics | When the Algorithm Itself is a Racist: Diagnosing Ethical Harm in the Basic Components of Software

It is argued that an “algorithmic ethics” can analyze a particular published algorithm, and the importance of developing a practical algorithmic ethics that addresses virtues, consequences, and norms is explained.

Artificial Intelligence and Transparency: Opening the Black Box

The alleged opacity of AI has become a major political issue over the past few years. Opening the black box, so it is argued, is indispensable to identify encroachments on user privacy, to detect

The fallacy of inscrutability

  • Joshua A. Kroll
  • Computer Science
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences
  • 2018
It is argued that algorithms are fundamentally understandable pieces of technology, and that policy should not accede to the idea that some systems are of necessity inscrutable.

Privacy And Web 3.0: Implementing Trust and Learning from Social Networks

Study firms’ purposes and practices to detect some emerging privacy risks and proposes the implementation of trust and loyalty into the privacy concept through flexible fiduciary laws to answer the question whether the European concept of privacy could be re-shaped for the benefit of individuals.

Regulating Algorithms’ Regulation? First Ethico-Legal Principles, Problems, and Opportunities of Algorithms

To consider and regulate anonymities—not only identities—in data protection requires a combined regulatory approach that blends together the reinterpretation of existing legal rules in light of the central role of privacy in the classifying society.

Whither Secrecy?

In his seminal 1907 essay on secrecy and secret societies, Georg Simmel describes a major shift over the course of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries in the way Western cultures understood the



Big Brother's Little Helpers: How Choicepoint and Other Commercial Data Brokers Collect, Process, and Package Your Data for Law Enforcement

The author concludes that the Privacy Act should apply to ChoicePoint and other CDBs, and public policy makers should not draw distinctions between commercial and government collection of personal information.

Automate This: How Algorithms Came to Rule Our World

In this fascinating, frightening book, Christopher Steiner tells the story of how algorithms took over and shows why the bot revolution is about to spill into every aspect of the authors' lives, often silently, without their knowledge.

What the publisher can teach the patient: intellectual property and privacy in an era of trusted privication.

Those who worry about the confidentiality of medical records, particularly as they are digitized by recent congressional mandate, might seek to augment comparatively paltry legal protections with trusted systems technologies, which might allow more thorough mass distribution of data, while allowing publishers to retain unprecedented control over their wares.

Introduction: Privacy Self-Management and the Consent Dilemma

The goal of this bundle of rights is to provide people with control over their personal data, and through this control people can decide for themselves how to weigh the costs and benefits of the collection, use, or disclosure of their information.

Political and ethical perspectives on data obfuscation

Our chapter, like all the others gathered in this volume, is written in light of the fact that computer-enabled data collection, aggregation and mining dramatically change the nature of contemporary

A Theory of Creepy: Technology, Privacy and Shifting Social Norms

The rapid evolution of digital technologies has hurled to the forefront of public and legal discourse dense social and ethical dilemmas that we have hardly begun to map and understand. In the near

Broken Promises of Privacy: Responding to the Surprising Failure of Anonymization

It is necessary to respond to the surprising failure of anonymization, and this Article provides the tools to do so.

A Call for Judgment: Sensible Finance for a Dynamic Economy

Our prosperity requires the enterprise of innumerable individuals and businesses who exercise their imagination and judgment-and bear responsibility for outcomes. And it is through dialogue and

Unraveling Privacy: The Personal Prospectus & the Threat of a Full Disclosure Future

Information technologies are reducing the costs of credible signaling, just as they have reduced the costs of data mining and economic sorting. The burgeoning informational privacy field has ignored

Little Brother's Big Book: The Case for a Right of Audit in Private Databases

To even the most dedicated scholars, the concept of privacy has proven "exasperatingly vague and evanescent"' and "infected with pernicious ambiguities."2 Because privacy is difficult to define, it