The Biogeographic History of Iceland – The North Atlantic Land Bridge Revisited

  title={The Biogeographic History of Iceland – The North Atlantic Land Bridge Revisited},
  author={Thomas Denk and Friðgeir Gr{\'i}msson and Reinhard Zetter and Leifur A. S{\'i}monarson},
Plants lacking long distance dispersal mechanisms required a functioning land bridge to colonize Iceland, a route provided by the North Atlantic Land Bridge (NALB). During the Cainozoic, the NALB, also referred to as the Thulean route, came into existence in the latest Paleocene and Early Eocene, but there has been considerable debate about the timing of its termination. The North Atlantic Land Bridge consisted of the well defined subaerial Greenland-Scotland Transverse Ridge. The individual… 
The breakup of Laurasia to form the Northeast Atlantic Realm disintegrated an inhomogeneous collage of cratons sutured by cross-cutting orogens. Volcanic rifted margins formed that are underlain by
An ancient tropical origin, dispersals via land bridges and Miocene diversification explain the subcosmopolitan disjunctions of the liverwort genus Lejeunea
This study shows that an ancient origin associated with a dispersal history facilitated by terrestrial land bridges and not long-distance dispersals are likely to explain the subcosmopolitan distribution of Lejeunea and monoicy likely favoured the colonisations of new areas, especially in the Miocene that was a key epoch shaping the worldwide distribution.
Threshold in North Atlantic-Arctic Ocean circulation controlled by the subsidence of the Greenland-Scotland Ridge
A fully coupled atmosphere-ocean model is used to investigate the effect of ocean gateway formation that is associated with the subsidence of the Greenland–Scotland Ridge and finds a threshold in sill depth (∼50 m) that is linked to the influence of wind mixing.
Northeast Atlantic Cenozoic paleobathymetry and Iceland mantle plume activity: Influences on oceanic gateways and paleoocean circulation
On geological time scales, the global ocean circulation is controlled by changes in paleobathymetry, including opening and closure of strategic ocean gateways and formation of new ocean basins. In
Land connectivity changes and global cooling shaped the colonization history and diversification of New World quail (Aves: Galliformes: Odontophoridae)
This work reconstructed colonization history and diversification of odontophorids with respect to hypothesized dry‐land connections between continents (North Atlantic, Beringian, Panamanian) that would have facilitated faunal exchange.
A rift-to-drift record of vertical crustal motions in the Faroe–Shetland Basin, NW European margin: establishing constraints on NE Atlantic evolution
The Upper Paleocene–Eocene rock record in the Faroe–Shetland Basin is punctuated by a series of unconformities that reflect a persistent tectonic instability throughout the syn- to early post-breakup
Phylogenetic and biogeographical relationships of the Sander pikeperches (Percidae: Perciformes): patterns across North America and Eurasia
Bayesian and maximum-likelihood trees from three mitochondrial and three nuclear gene regions support the hypothesis that Sander diverged from its sister group Romanichthys/Zingel ∼24.6 Mya and genetic diversities of the North American species are higher than those in Eurasia, suggesting fewer Pleistocene glaciation bottlenecks.
Phylogenomics, biogeography, and evolution of the blue‐ or white‐fruited dogwoods (Cornus)—Insights into morphological and ecological niche divergence following intercontinental geographic isolation
It is suggested that the EA–ENA disjunct floras are an assembly of lineages descended from the Mesophytic Forests that evolved from the early Paleogene “boreotropical flora” through varied evolutionary pathways across lineages.
Shifts in diversification rates linked to biogeographic movement into new areas: An example of a recent radiation in the Andes.
Investigating the systematics, diversification dynamics, and historical biogeography of the plant clade Rhinantheae in the Orobanchaceae, with a special focus on the Andean clade of the genus Bartsia finds increased net diversification of the South American clade corresponds to biogeographic movement into the New World.


Episodic migration of oaks to Iceland: Evidence for a North Atlantic "land bridge" in the latest Miocene.
Dating the subsidence history of the North Atlantic Land Bridge (NALB) is crucial for understanding intercontinental disjunctions of northern temperate trees. Traditionally, the NALB has been assumed
Development of Cenozoic Abyssal Circulation South of the Greenland-Scotland Ridge
Seismic, lithostratigraphic, faunal, and isotopic evidence from the western and northern North Atlantic indicates that formation of northern sources for strongly circulating bottom water began in the
Cenozoic Marine Environments in the North Atlantic and Norwegian-Greenland Sea
A warm ocean, with an abundant and diverse flora and fauna invaded the newly forming branches of the North Atlantic, first the Labrador Sea (Late Cretaceous), then, beginning with the Eocene, the
Lower Tertiary laterite on the Iceland–Faeroe Ridge and the Thulean land bridge
  • T. Nilsen
  • Environmental Science, Geography
  • 1978
CORES of a lower Tertiary lateritic palaeosol resting on basalt were recovered1 from Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 336 (Leg 38) on the north-east flank of the Iceland–Faeroe Ridge (Fig. 1), a major
Cenozoic Paleogeography of North Atlantic Land Bridges
This paper attempts to synthesize vertebrate paleontological evidence and recently acquired knowledge of the geological history of terrestrial connections across the northern North Atlantic area. In
Speculations about the Paleodepth of the Greenland-Scotland Ridge During Late Mesozoic and Cenozoic Times
The Greenland-Scotland transverse ridge has separated the deep basins of the Norwegian-Greenland Sea from the main North Atlantic Ocean since the early Cenozoic. Originally, it probably formed a
Early Oligocene initiation of North Atlantic Deep Water formation
It is concluded that the initiation of deep-water circulation from the Norwegian Sea into the North Atlantic Ocean took place much earlier than is currently assumed in most numerical models of ancient ocean circulation.
The Miocene floras of Iceland and their significance for late Cainozoic North Atlantic biogeography
The main finding is that the Miocene flora of Iceland belongs to a widespread Neogene northern hemispheric floral type including plants whose representatives are restricted to East Asia, North America and to western Eurasia at the present time.
Neogene overflow of Northern Component Water at the Greenland‐Scotland Ridge
In the North Atlantic Ocean, flow of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW), and of its ancient counterpart Northern Component Water (NCW), across the Greenland‐Scotland Ridge (GSR) is thought to have