The Beaker Phenomenon and the Genomic Transformation of Northwest Europe

  title={The Beaker Phenomenon and the Genomic Transformation of Northwest Europe},
  author={I{\~n}igo Olalde and Selina Brace and Morten E. Allentoft and Ian Armit and Kristian Kristiansen and Thomas J. Booth and Nadin Rohland and Swapan Mallick and Anna Sz{\'e}cs{\'e}nyi-Nagy and Alissa Mittnik and Eveline Altena and Mark Lipson and Iosif Lazaridis and Thomas K. Harper and Nick J. Patterson and Nasreen Broomandkhoshbacht and Yoan Diekmann and Zuzana Faltyskova and Daniel M. Fernandes and Matthew Ferry and {\'E}adaoin Harney and Peter de Knijff and Megan Michel and Jonas Oppenheimer and Kristin Stewardson and Alistair Barclay and Kurt Werner Alt and Corina Liesau and Patricia R{\'i}os and co Jorge Alejandro Blasco and Jorge Vega de Miguel and Roberto Mendui{\~n}a Garc{\'i}a and Azucena Avil{\'e}s Fern{\'a}ndez and Eszter B{\'a}nffy and Maria Bernab{\`o}-Brea and David Billoin and Clive Bonsall and Laura A. Bonsall and Tim Allen and Lindsey B{\"u}ster and Sophie Carver and Laura Castells Navarro and Oliver E Craig and Gordon T. Cook and Barry W. Cunliffe and Anthony Denaire and Kirsten Egging Dinwiddy and Natasha Dodwell and Michal Ern{\'e}e and Christopher Evans and Milan Kucharik and Joan Franc{\`e}s Farr{\'e} and Chris Fowler and Michiel Gazenbeek and Rafael Garrido Pena and Mar{\'i}a Haber-Uriarte and Elżbieta Haduch and G. L. Hey and Nick Jowett and Timothy D. J. Knowles and Ken Massy and Saskia Pfrengle and Philippe Lefranc and Olivier Lemercier and Arnaud Lefebvre and C{\'e}sar Heras Mart{\'i}nez and Virginia Galera Olmo and Ana Bastida Ram{\'i}rez and Joaqu{\'i}n Lomba Maurandi and Tona Maj{\'o} and Jacqueline I. Mckinley and K. Mcsweeney and Bal{\'a}zs Guszt{\'a}v Mende and Alessandra Modi and Gabriella Kulcs{\'a}r and Vikt{\'o}ria Kiss and Andr{\'a}s Czene and R{\'o}bert Patay and Anna Endrődi and Kitti K{\"o}hler and Tam{\'a}s Hajdu and Tam{\'a}s Szeniczey and J{\'a}nos Dani and Zsolt Bernert and Maya Hoole and Olivia Cheronet and Denise Keating and Petr Velem{\'i}nsk{\'y} and Miroslav Dobe{\vs} and Francesca Candilio and Fraser Brown and Ra{\'u}l Flores Fern{\'a}ndez and Ana Mercedes Herrero-Corral and Sebastiano Tusa and Emiliano Carnieri and Luigi Lentini and Antonella Valenti and A. Zanini and Clive Waddington and Germ{\'a}n Delibes and Elisa Guerra-Doce and Benjamin J.C. Neil and Marcus Brittain and Mike A. Luke and Richard Mortimer and Jocelyne Desideri and Marie Besse and G{\"u}nter Br{\"u}cken and Mirosław Furmanek and Agata Hałuszko and Maksym Mackiewicz and Artur Rapiński and Stephany L. Leach and Ignacio Soriano and Katina T Lillios and Jo{\~a}o Lu{\'i}s Cardoso and Mike Parker Pearson and Piotr Włodarczak and Trevor D. Price and Pilar Prieto and Pierre-J{\'e}r{\^o}me Rey and Roberto Risch and Manuel A. Rojo Guerra and Aurore Schmitt and Jo{\"e}l Serralongue and Ana Maria Silva and Vaclav Smrcka and Luc Vergnaud and Jo{\~a}o Zilh{\~a}o and David Caramelli and Thomas F.G. Higham and Mark George Thomas and Douglas J. Kennett and Harry Fokkens and Volker Heyd and Alison Sheridan and Karl-G{\"o}ran Sj{\"o}gren and Philipp W. Stockhammer and Johannes Krause and Ron Pinhasi and Wolfgang Haak and Ian Barnes and Carles Lalueza-Fox and David Reich},
  pages={190 - 196}
From around 2750 to 2500 bc, Bell Beaker pottery became widespread across western and central Europe, before it disappeared between 2200 and 1800 bc. The forces that propelled its expansion are a matter of long-standing debate, and there is support for both cultural diffusion and migration having a role in this process. Here we present genome-wide data from 400 Neolithic, Copper Age and Bronze Age Europeans, including 226 individuals associated with Beaker-complex artefacts. We detected limited… 
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