The Beaker Phenomenon and the Genomic Transformation of Northwest Europe

@article{Olalde2018TheBP,
  title={The Beaker Phenomenon and the Genomic Transformation of Northwest Europe},
  author={I{\~n}igo Olalde and Selina Brace and Morten E. Allentoft and Ian Armit and Kristian Kristiansen and Thomas J. Booth and Nadin Rohland and Swapan Mallick and Anna Sz{\'e}cs{\'e}nyi-Nagy and Alissa Mittnik and Eveline Altena and Mark Lipson and Iosif Lazaridis and Thomas K. Harper and Nick J. Patterson and Nasreen Broomandkhoshbacht and Yoan Diekmann and Zuzana Faltyskova and Daniel M. Fernandes and Matthew Ferry and {\'E}adaoin Harney and Peter de Knijff and Megan Michel and Jonas Oppenheimer and Kristin Stewardson and Alistair Barclay and Kurt Werner Alt and Corina Liesau and Patricia R{\'i}os and co Jorge Alejandro Blasco and Jorge Vega de Miguel and Roberto Mendui{\~n}a Garc{\'i}a and Azucena Avil{\'e}s Fern{\'a}ndez and Eszter B{\'a}nffy and Maria Bernab{\`o}-Brea and David Billoin and Clive Bonsall and Laura A. Bonsall and Tim Allen and Lindsey B{\"u}ster and Sophie Carver and Laura Castells Navarro and Oliver E Craig and Gordon T. Cook and Barry W. Cunliffe and Anthony Denaire and Kirsten Egging Dinwiddy and Natasha Dodwell and Michal Ern{\'e}e and Christopher Evans and Milan Kucharik and Joan Franc{\`e}s Farr{\'e} and Chris Fowler and Michiel Gazenbeek and Rafael Garrido Pena and Mar{\'i}a Haber-Uriarte and Elżbieta Haduch and G. L. Hey and Nick Jowett and Timothy D. J. Knowles and Ken Massy and Saskia Pfrengle and Philippe Lefranc and Olivier Lemercier and Arnaud Lefebvre and C{\'e}sar Heras Mart{\'i}nez and Virginia Galera Olmo and Ana Bastida Ram{\'i}rez and Joaqu{\'i}n Lomba Maurandi and Tona Maj{\'o} and Jacqueline I. Mckinley and K. Mcsweeney and Bal{\'a}zs Guszt{\'a}v Mende and Alessandra Modi and Gabriella Kulcs{\'a}r and Vikt{\'o}ria Kiss and Andr{\'a}s Czene and R{\'o}bert Patay and Anna Endrődi and Kitti K{\"o}hler and Tam{\'a}s Hajdu and Tam{\'a}s Szeniczey and J{\'a}nos Dani and Zsolt Bernert and Maya Hoole and Olivia Cheronet and Denise Keating and Petr Velem{\'i}nsk{\'y} and Miroslav Dobe{\vs} and Francesca Candilio and Fraser Brown and Ra{\'u}l Flores Fern{\'a}ndez and Ana Mercedes Herrero-Corral and Sebastiano Tusa and Emiliano Carnieri and Luigi Lentini and Antonella Valenti and A. Zanini and Clive Waddington and Germ{\'a}n Delibes and Elisa Guerra-Doce and Benjamin J.C. Neil and Marcus Brittain and Mike A. Luke and Richard Mortimer and Jocelyne Desideri and Marie Besse and G{\"u}nter Br{\"u}cken and Mirosław Furmanek and Agata Hałuszko and Maksym Mackiewicz and Artur Rapiński and Stephany L. Leach and Ignacio Soriano and Katina T Lillios and Jo{\~a}o Lu{\'i}s Cardoso and Mike Parker Pearson and Piotr Włodarczak and Trevor D. Price and Pilar Prieto and Pierre-J{\'e}r{\^o}me Rey and Roberto Risch and Manuel A. Rojo Guerra and Aurore Schmitt and Jo{\"e}l Serralongue and Ana Maria Silva and Vaclav Smrcka and Luc Vergnaud and Jo{\~a}o Zilh{\~a}o and David Caramelli and Thomas F.G. Higham and Mark George Thomas and Douglas J. Kennett and Harry Fokkens and Volker Heyd and Alison Sheridan and Karl-G{\"o}ran Sj{\"o}gren and Philipp W. Stockhammer and Johannes Krause and Ron Pinhasi and Wolfgang Haak and Ian Barnes and Carles Lalueza-Fox and David Reich},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2018},
  volume={555},
  pages={190 - 196}
}
From around 2750 to 2500 bc, Bell Beaker pottery became widespread across western and central Europe, before it disappeared between 2200 and 1800 bc. The forces that propelled its expansion are a matter of long-standing debate, and there is support for both cultural diffusion and migration having a role in this process. Here we present genome-wide data from 400 Neolithic, Copper Age and Bronze Age Europeans, including 226 individuals associated with Beaker-complex artefacts. We detected limited… 
The genetic prehistory of the Greater Caucasus
TLDR
The steppe groups from Yamnaya and subsequent pastoralist cultures show evidence for previously undetected farmer-related ancestry from different contact zones, while Steppe Maykop individuals harbour additional Upper Palaeolithic Siberian and Native American related ancestry.
Neolithization and Population Replacement in Britain: An Alternative View
  • Julian Thomas
  • Environmental Science
    Cambridge Archaeological Journal
  • 2022
Investigation of British Mesolithic and Neolithic genomes suggests discontinuity between the two and has been interpreted as indicating a significant migration of continental farmers, displacing the
The genomic ancestry of the Scandinavian Battle Axe Culture people and their relation to the broader Corded Ware horizon
TLDR
It is shown that the BAC represents a group different from other Neolithic populations in Scandinavia, revealing stratification among cultural groups, and the steppe ancestry seen in these Scandinavian BAC individuals can be explained only by migration into Scandinavia.
Population genomics of the Viking world
TLDR
The Viking diaspora was characterized by substantial foreign engagement: distinct Viking populations influenced the genomic makeup of different regions of Europe, while Scandinavia also experienced increased contact with the rest of the continent.
Ancient Maltese genomes and the genetic geography of Neolithic Europe
Understanding 6th-century barbarian social organization and migration through paleogenomics
TLDR
Ancient genomic DNA from 63 samples from two cemeteries that have been previously associated with the Longobards revealed that each cemetery was primarily organized around one large pedigree, suggesting that biological relationships played an important role in these early Medieval societies.
Population Replacement in Early Neolithic Britain
TLDR
Genetic affinity between British and Iberian Neolithic populations is found indicating that British Neolithic people derived much of their ancestry from Anatolian farmers who originally followed the Mediterranean route of dispersal and likely entered Britain from northwestern mainland Europe.
Population genomics of the Viking world.
TLDR
It is concluded that the Viking diaspora was characterized by substantial transregional engagement: distinct populations influenced the genomic makeup of different regions of Europe, and Scandinavia experienced increased contact with the rest of the continent.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 453 REFERENCES
Neolithic and Bronze Age migration to Ireland and establishment of the insular Atlantic genome
TLDR
The first ancient whole genomes from Ireland, including two at high coverage, demonstrate that large-scale genetic shifts accompanied both Neolithic and Bronze Age transitions, and suggest the establishment of central attributes of the Irish genome 4,000 y ago.
The Genomic History of Southeastern Europe
TLDR
It is shown that southeastern Europe continued to be a nexus between east and west after the arrival of farmers, with intermittent genetic contact with steppe populations occurring up to 2,000 years earlier than the migrations from the steppe that ultimately replaced much of the population of northern Europe.
Genome flux and stasis in a five millennium transect of European prehistory
TLDR
A 5,000-year transect of human genomes sampled from petrous bones giving consistently excellent endogenous DNA yields are analysed, suggesting genomic shifts with the advent of the Neolithic, Bronze and Iron Ages, with interleaved periods of genome stability.
Parallel paleogenomic transects reveal complex genetic history of early European farmers
TLDR
Investigating the population dynamics of Neolithization across Europe using a high-resolution genome-wide ancient DNA dataset with a total of 180 samples finds that genetic diversity was shaped predominantly by local processes, with varied sources and proportions of hunter-gatherer ancestry among the three regions and through time.
The maternal genetic make-up of the Iberian Peninsula between the Neolithic and the Early Bronze Age
TLDR
This study focuses on the maternal genetic makeup of the Neolithic, Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age in Iberia, and reports ancient mitochondrial DNA results of 213 individuals from the northeast, central, southeast and southwest regions and thus on the largest archaeogenetic dataset from the Peninsula to date.
Massive migration from the steppe was a source for Indo-European languages in Europe
We generated genome-wide data from 69 Europeans who lived between 8,000–3,000 years ago by enriching ancient DNA libraries for a target set of almost 400,000 polymorphisms. Enrichment of these
A Common Genetic Origin for Early Farmers from Mediterranean Cardial and Central European LBK Cultures
TLDR
The results indicate that retrieving ancient genomes from similarly warm Mediterranean environments such as the Near East is technically feasible and suggest that both Cardial and LBK peoples derived from a common ancient population located in or around the Balkan Peninsula.
Early farmers from across Europe directly descended from Neolithic Aegeans
TLDR
This study demonstrates a direct genetic link between Mediterranean and Central European early farmers and those of Greece and Anatolia, extending the European Neolithic migratory chain all the way back to southwestern Asia.
The genetics of an early Neolithic pastoralist from the Zagros, Iran
TLDR
It is shown that Western Iran was inhabited by a population genetically most similar to hunter-gatherers from the Caucasus, but distinct from the Neolithic Anatolian people who later brought food production into Europe.
...
...