The Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale–Revisited

  title={The Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale–Revisited},
  author={Thomas R. E. Barnes},
  journal={Journal of Psychopharmacology},
  pages={365 - 370}
  • T. Barnes
  • Published 1 December 2003
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Journal of Psychopharmacology
Akathisia is a syndrome of motor restlessness, principally seen in association with antipsychotic medication. It is characterized by a subjective experience of mental unease and the urge to move, and manifests physically as particular patterns of restless movement. This review focuses on the signs and symptoms of the condition, and its diagnosis and assessment using the Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale. This scale was generated 15 years ago, and was derived from the findings of studies exploring… 

Atypical antipsychotics induced chronic akathisia: a case report -

A patient, who were given various second generation antipsychotics for treatment of psychotic disorder and there after developed chronic akathisia with acute onset and its management is discussed.

Treating akathisia with pregabalin – A case report

Akathisia is a movement disorder characterized by a subjective experience of restlessness alongside an urge to move, generating repetitive movements1,2. Its clinical presentation can be confusing and

[Akathisia--diagnosis, pathophysiology and therapy].

The paper describes the historical context of disorder defined as akathisia, its clinical course, pathophysiology, as well as therapy.

The clinical challenges of akathisia

Some of the confusion surrounding akathisia, its relationship to other disorders, and differential diagnosis, are addressed, as well as treatment alternatives.

The Assessment and Treatment of Antipsychotic-Induced Akathisia

Clinicians should systematically assess akathisia with a validated scale before starting antipsychotics and during antipsychotic dosage titration, and the choice of adjuvant medications should favour the more established treatments, with careful consideration of contraindications and side effects.

Akathisia--rare cause of psychomotor agitation in patients with traumatic brain injury: case report and review of literature.

A case report of akathisia is described in a 34-year-old woman with TBI and the differential diagnosis and its pathophysiology, treatment, and prognosis are discussed.

Non-psychotropic drugs induced akathisia: a propos of a case associated with metoclopramide use

The case of a 19 year old male who developed acute akathisia after intravenous administration of metoclopramide is reported, which is essential to perform a quick and accurate diagnosis to properly manage this side effect.

Reliability and Validity of the Turkish Version of the Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale

High values of inter-rater reliability for all items in the scale and high internal consistency values indicate that the Turkish version of the BARS can be used reliably.

Medication-Induced Akathisia with Newly Approved Antipsychotics in Patients with a Severe Mental Illness: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

A systematic review and meta-analysis of akathisia incidence rates of the NAPs, as monotherapy or adjunctive treatment, in adult patients with a severe mental illness, using data from published and unpublished randomized controlled trials to assess the role of study characteristics.



Akathisia: clinical phenomenology and relationship to tardive dyskinesia.

Clinical Characteristics of Akathisia

Assessment of drug-induced movement disorders was carried out regularly on 104 psychiatric patients requiring antipsychotic medication on admission to hospital, suggesting two distinct types of acute akathisia; one related to severe parkinsonism and one not.

Neuroleptic-induced akathisia: a review

This paper will review the history of spontaneously occurring syndromes of pathologic restlessness and NIA, the clinical significance of Nia, issues concerning the diagnosis and quantification of N IA, treatments of NIA and possible future directions for research in this area.

A rating scale for acute drug-induced akathisia: development, reliability, and validity

  • P. Sachdev
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Biological Psychiatry
  • 1994

Akathisia variants and tardive dyskinesia.

  • M. Munetz
  • Psychology
    Archives of general psychiatry
  • 1986
It is suggested that akathisia and tardive dyskinesia can be distinguished by discerning both the extent of subjective distress and the voluntary nature of the movements.

The clinical phenomenon of akathisia.

  • W. GibbA. Lees
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry
  • 1986
Motor disturbances associated with akathisia were repeated leg crossing, swinging of one leg, lateral knee movements, sliding of the feet and rapid walking.

Akathisia, pseudoakathisia and tardive dyskinesia: clinical examples.

Akathisia variants and tardive dyskinesia.

The findings suggested a possible relationship between pseudoakathisia, orofacial and limb dyskinesia, and the severity of negative schizophrenic symptoms.

Akathisia: a side effect to be remembered.

  • D. Raskin
  • Medicine
    The American journal of psychiatry
  • 1972
The author warns that the phenothiazines, thioxanthenes, and butyrophenones exacerbate akathisia and that a careful diagnosis should be made before increasing a patient's medication.