The Ballot and the Bullet

@article{Umoja1999TheBA,
  title={The Ballot and the Bullet},
  author={Akinyele Omowale Umoja},
  journal={Journal of Black Studies},
  year={1999},
  volume={29},
  pages={558 - 578}
}
  • A. Umoja
  • Published 1 March 1999
  • Political Science
  • Journal of Black Studies
The June 1966 March Against Fear from Memphis, Tennessee to Jackson, Mississippi represented a significant shift in the character and balance of forces in the southern civil rights movement. During a late night meeting in a Memphis church, Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) chairman Stokely Carmichael argued that White participation in the march be de-emphasized. Carmichael also proposed that armed security be provided by the Deacons for Defense and Justice, a Louisiana-based… 
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