The Bacillus subtilis endospore: assembly and functions of the multilayered coat

  title={The Bacillus subtilis endospore: assembly and functions of the multilayered coat},
  author={Peter T. McKenney and Adam Driks and Patrick Eichenberger},
  journal={Nature Reviews Microbiology},
Sporulation in Bacillus subtilis involves an asymmetric cell division followed by differentiation into two cell types, the endospore and the mother cell. The endospore coat is a multilayered shell that protects the bacterial genome during stress conditions and is composed of dozens of proteins. Recently, fluorescence microscopy coupled with high-resolution image analysis has been applied to the dynamic process of coat assembly and has shown that the coat is organized into at least four distinct… 

Shaping an Endospore: Architectural Transformations During Bacillus subtilis Sporulation.

New insights are discussed into the mechanisms that drive morphogenesis, with special emphasis on polar septation, chromosome translocation, and the phagocytosis-like process of engulfment, and also the key experimental advances that have proven valuable in revealing the inner workings of bacterial cells.

Genetics and Biochemistry of Sporulation in Endospore-Forming Bacteria (Bacillus): A Prime Example of Developmental Biology

The present chapter encompasses a detailed description of the genes involved in the bacterial sporulation process, their location in the chromosome of Bacillus subtilis, and a descriptions of the main antibiotics produced by different Bacillus species.

Milestones in Bacillus subtilis sporulation research

This review highlights foundational discoveries that shaped the sporulation field, from its origins to the present day, tracing a chronology that spans more than one hundred eighty years.

A dynamic, ring-forming MucB / RseB-like protein influences spore shape in Bacillus subtilis

Functional diversification of the MucB / RseB protein domain between diderm and monoderm bacteria is suggested and SsdC appears to play a role in the proper assembly of the spore cortex, through connections to thespore coat.

Coordinated Assembly of the Bacillus anthracis Coat and Exosporium during Bacterial Spore Outer Layer Formation

This work dramatically improves the understanding of the assembly of the outermost layer of the B. anthracis spore, the exosporium, a layer that encases spores from many bacterial species and likely plays important roles in the spore’s interactions with the environment, including host tissues, by identifying a novel protein interaction network that directs assembly to initiate at a specific subcellular location in the developing cell.

Bacillus subtilis Spore Inner Membrane Proteome.

Over 900 proteins were identified from the B. subtilis spore IM preparations, at least some of which are likely to provide new insights into IM physiology, unveiling proteins putatively involved in spore germination machinery and hence putative germination inhibition targets.

The Direct Interaction between Two Morphogenetic Proteins Is Essential for Spore Coat Formation in Bacillus subtilis

It is reported that CotH also controls the assembly of CotE and that this mutual dependency is due to a direct interaction between the two proteins.

CotG Mediates Spore Surface Permeability in Bacillus subtilis

CotG, a modular and abundant component of the Bacillus subtilis spore coat, controls spore permeability through its central region, formed by positively charged tandem repeats, which act as spacers between the N and C termini of the protein.

Flexibility of the Prograamme of Spore Coat Formation in Bacillus subtilis: Bypass of CotE Requirement by Over-Production of CotH

Western blot, fluorescence microscopy and Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering spectroscopy data indicate that over-production of CotH allowed the formation of spores overall resembling wild type spores and carrying in their coat some CotE−/CotH-dependant proteins.



Structure, assembly, and function of the spore surface layers.

New insights into the molecular details of spore surface morphogenesis provide avenues for exploitation of the sporesurface layers in applications for biotechnology and medicine.

Visualization of the subcellular location of sporulation proteins in Bacillus subtilis using immunofluorescence microscopy

It is concluded that sporulation in B. subtilis is a fertile system for addressing cell biological problems in a bacterium and that immunofluorescence microscopy provides a sensitive method for visualizing protein subcellular localization at high resolution.

Bacillus subtilis Spore Coat

  • A. Driks
  • Biology
    Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews
  • 1999
A model is presented that describes how morphogenetic proteins direct coat assembly to the specific subcellular site of the nascent spore surface and how they establish the coat layers.

Small proteins link coat and cortex assembly during sporulation in Bacillus subtilis

A model in which CmpA participates in a developmental checkpoint that ensures the proper orchestration of coat and cortex morphogenesis by repressing cortex assembly until coat assembly successfully initiates is proposed.

Morphogenetic Proteins SpoVID and SafA Form a Complex during Assembly of the Bacillus subtilis Spore Coat

The results of a previous study that showed safA mutant spores have defective coats which are missing several proteins are confirmed with the finding that SafA and SpoVID were coimmunoprecipitated by anti-SafA or anti-SpoVID antiserum from whole-cell extracts 3 and 4 h after the onset of sporulation.

A Four-Dimensional View of Assembly of a Morphogenetic Protein during Sporulation in Bacillus subtilis

Using a deconvolution algorithm to process digitally-collected optical sections, it is shown that SpoIVA, which is synthesized in the mother cell chamber of the sporangium, assembled into a spherical shell around the outer surface of the forespore.

Assembly of an Oxalate Decarboxylase Produced under σK Control into the Bacillus subtilis Spore Coat

It is found that transcription of oxdD is induced during sporulation as a monocistronic unit under the control of sigma(K) and is negatively regulated by GerE, and localization of a functional OxdD-green fluorescent protein (GFP) at the surface of the developing spore depends on the SafA morphogenetic protein, which localizes at the interface between the spore cortex and coat layers.

Characterization of spoIVA, a sporulation gene involved in coat morphogenesis in Bacillus subtilis

The cloning and characterization of the Bacillus subtilis sporulation locus spoIVA are reported, mutations at which cause an unusual defect in spore formation in which the coat misassembled as swirls within the mother cell are reported.

Physical Interaction between Coat Morphogenetic Proteins SpoVID and CotE Is Necessary for Spore Encasement in Bacillus subtilis

An updated model of coat assembly and spore encasement that incorporates several physical interactions between the principal coat morphogenetic proteins is proposed.