The Avian Egg: Incubation Time and Water Loss

@article{Rahn1974TheAE,
  title={The Avian Egg: Incubation Time and Water Loss},
  author={Hermann Rahn and Amos Ar},
  journal={The Condor},
  year={1974},
  volume={76},
  pages={147-152}
}
The large difference in incubation time among bird eggs, ranging from a minimum of 11 days to nearly 90, has aroused man's interest since antiquity. [] Key Result On the basis of water vapor conductivity measurements of the egg shell previously presented (Ar et al. 1974), the daily weight losses of eggs during natural incubation reported by Drent (1970), and the reported incubation periods, one is now able to derive new relationships which apply to eggs in general.

Figures and Tables from this paper

Relation of Avian Egg Weight to Body Weight
TLDR
The endeavor has been to describe the relationship between egg weight and body weight in mathematical terms that are amenable to further refinements when additional data became available.
THE EVOLUTION OF PARENTAL CARE IN BIRDS
  • A. Ar, Y. Yom-Tov
  • Environmental Science
    Evolution; international journal of organic evolution
  • 1978
TLDR
The data on which this work is based were accumulated mainly from the existing literature and referred to various works on fauna or specific systematic groups where evoludata on female body weight, egg weight, clutch size and incubation length was found.
Incubation Period and Foraging Technique in Shorebirds
  • E. Nol
  • Biology
    The American Naturalist
  • 1986
TLDR
It is suggested that the need for greater maturation of neural function for morecomplex foraging techniques explains differences in incubation period among the shorebirds (suborders Charadrii and Scolopaci).
The adaptive significance of variation in avian incubation periods
TLDR
This work evaluates several lines of evidence relating nest attendance by adults and the quality of the immune system to the length of the incubation period and the role of sibling competition in selecting for rapid embryo growth and early hatching.
Water Loss from Eggs of the Great Frigatebird
TLDR
The natural incubation period of Great Frigatebird eggs reported in the literature was 74% longer than the value predicted from initial egg mass and the initial event in the pipping process was a star-shaped fracture of the shell which increased water loss from the egg and persisted for several days before hatching was complete.
Seasonal declines in incubation periods of Brünnich's Guillemots Una lomvia:testing proximate causes
TLDR
It is concluded that none of the three commonly proposed proximate mechanisms adequately explains the seasonal variation in guillemot incubation periods.
Mechanisms of short incubation period in brood-parasitic cowbirds
TLDR
The hypothesis that cowbirds shorten incubation period by reducing the energy content of the egg is supported, although it results in a slightly smaller hatchling, and there is experimental evidence that reducing yolk reserves may act as a proximate cue for early hatching in other vertebrates.
Incubation Water Loss in Eggs of Heermann's and Western Gulls
TLDR
The vapor pressure in the air spaces of the egg is determined by the egg temperature, but the vapor Pressure in the nest's microclimate is controlled by parental behavior serving to "ventilate" the nest air.
Incubation and fledging durations of woodpeckers
TLDR
It is suggested that the short incubation of Picidae is an adaptation to the apparently poor gas exchange around the eggs under the incubating parent in the nest chamber, where oxygen and carbon dioxide levels may be low and high, respectively, and early transition to pulmonary respiration associated with an increase in nest ventilation is of advantage.
Metabolism of Avian Embryos: Ontogeny and Temperature Effects in the Ostrich
TLDR
In the first comparative consideration of the metabolism of avian embryos, Rahn et al. (1974) predicted that, for eggs of different species but of the same mass, “plateau” metabolic rate is inversely related to the length of the incubation period and can be predicted most accurately from the equation.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-7 OF 7 REFERENCES
The Avian Egg: Water Vapor Conductance, Shell Thickness, and Functional Pore Area
Gas exchange in the avian embryo has been shown to be dependent on, and limited by, the diffusive properties of gases across the resistance offered by the shell and shell membranes ( Wangensteen and
Respiratory gas exchange by the avian embryo.
Oceanic birds of South America