The Autonomy of Lexical Orthography

@article{Rapp1997TheAO,
  title={The Autonomy of Lexical Orthography},
  author={Brenda Rapp and Lisa Benzing and Alfonso Caramazza},
  journal={Cognitive Neuropsychology},
  year={1997},
  volume={14},
  pages={71-104}
}
Do we need to access the spoken form of a word in order to retrieve the word's spelling or in order to understand the meaning of its written form? In this paper we focus on the relationship between lexical phonology and orthography specifically in production and we present the case of a neurologically impaired individual who is often unable to provide the correct spoken name of an object although he may be able to write its name correctly. We argue that this evidence is seriously problematic… 

Independent Access to Phonological and Orthographic Lexical Representations: A Replication Study

TLDR
A non-fluent aphasic patient with agrammatic speech and severe word- finding difficulties is described, confirming the hypothesis that access to the orthographic form of words can be accomplished independently, without the mediation of phonology (the orthographic autonomy hypothesis).

The autonomy of the orthographic pathway in a shallow language: Data from an aphasic patient

This paper reports the case of a Spanish monolingual aphasic patient, JD, who showed a severe impairment in language production. Overall, the patient's difficulties were much more severe in oral than

Semantic Errors as Neuropsychological Evidence for the Independence and the Interaction of Orthographic and Phonological Word Forms

TLDR
The observation that damage to word meaning or to word form usually results in comparable difficulties in spoken and written output, suggests that phonological and orthographic word forms, albeit autonomous, can interact.

Cascadedness in Chinese written word production

TLDR
Chinese participants were presented with colored line drawings of objects and were instructed to write the name of the color while attempting to ignore the object, which constitutes clear evidence that task-irrelevant lexical codes activate their corresponding orthographic representation and suggests that activation flows in a cascaded fashion within the written production system.

Direct access from meaning to orthography in Chinese: A case study of superior written to oral naming

Background: For alphabetic scripts, the obligatory phonological mediation hypothesis about written language processing has been seriously challenged by case reports of acquired dyslexia and

The role of phonological and orthographic information in lexical selection

Phonology Contributes to Writing

Is the production of written words affected by their phonological properties? Most researchers agree that orthographic codes can be accessed directly from meaning, but the contribution of

A case of selective difficulty in writing verbs

Abstract We describe the case of an individual who exhibited a selective difficulty in writing verbs. We document the pattern In a series of tasks and rule out the possibility that the results can be

Phonology is not accessed earlier than orthography in Chinese written production: evidence for the orthography autonomy hypothesis

TLDR
The findings support the orthography autonomy hypothesis, rather than the obligatory phonological mediation hypothesis, in written production in Chinese (as a non-alphabetic script) and demonstrate that orthographic codes can be accessed directly from meaning in healthy adults.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 62 REFERENCES

The Modality-Specific Organization of Grammatical Categories: Evidence from Impaired Spoken and Written Sentence Production

TLDR
It is argued that grammatical categories constitute an organizing parameter of representation and/or processing for each of the independent, modality-specific lexicons and that these observations contribute to the growing evidence that access to the orthographic and phonological forms of words can occur independently.

The selective impairment of phonological processing: A case study

Converging evidence for the interaction of semantic and sublexical phonological information in accessing lexical representations for spoken output

Abstract Detailed studies of naming, reading, and comprehension by three braindamaged patients are reported. The three subjects had different patterns of performance across lexical tasks, which are

Evidence for lexicographic processing in a patient with preserved written over oral single word naming.

TLDR
While grapheme-phoneme conversion improved substantially six months post-onset, phoneme-grapheme transcoding remained severely impaired, which suggests that different neural mechanisms mediate access to phonology for reading and writing systems.

Hesitation and the production of verbal paraphasias and neologisms in jargon aphasia

The assignment of word stress in oral reading: Evidence from a case of acquired dyslexia.

Abstract Patient CLB is severely impaired in naming familiar objects and in writing to dictation and repeating familiar and novel words. His output in all these tasks is jargonaphasic. By contrast,

Wernicke's aphasia and normal language processing: A case study in cognitive neuropsychology

Mechanisms for accessing lexical representations for output: Evidence from a category-specific semantic deficit

The retrieval of phonological forms in production: tests of predictions from a connectionist model

...