The Attachment Paradox

  title={The Attachment Paradox},
  author={Tsachi Ein-Dor and Mario Mikulincer and Guy Doron and Phillip R. Shaver},
  journal={Perspectives on Psychological Science},
  pages={123 - 141}
Bowlby’s (1969/1982) attachment theory has generated an enormous body of research and conceptual elaborations. Although attachment theory and research propose that attachment security provides a person with many adaptive advantages during all phases of the life cycle, numerous studies indicate that almost half of the human species can be classified as insecurely attached or insecure with respect to attachment. It seems odd that evolution left humans in this vulnerable position unless there are… 
Attachment dispositions and human defensive behavior
Facing danger: how do people behave in times of need? The case of adult attachment styles
It is argued that a social group containing members with different attachment patterns may be more conducive to survival than a homogeneous group of securely attached individuals because each attachment disposition has specific adaptive advantages that promote the survival of the individual and people around him or her when facing threats and perils.
Rethinking Attachment Theory
Bowlby’s attachment theory has stimulated research covering a variety of topics related to individual and relational well-being, such as courtship, mate selection, motivations, emotional responses,
Did Insecure Attachment Styles Evolve for the Benefit of the Group?
This novel hypothesis proclaims that groups containing a mixture of secure and insecure attachment styles deal more effectively with hazards, such as venomous snakes or fires, because of earlier detection and escape.
Testing the Compatibility of Attachment Anxiety and Avoidance with Cultural Self-Construals
The results showed that insecure attachment behaviors were evaluated as more favorable when they were compatible with one's own attachment tendency, and this trend was moderated by the cultural self-construal.
Effective Reaction to Danger
People who score high on attachment anxiety or avoidance display poorer adjustment than secure individuals in various social, emotional, and behavioral domains. Yet it may be advantageous for groups
The impact of attachment anxiety on susceptibility to false memories
Previous research shows that people’s attachment styles predict memory functioning. For example, people with relatively insecure attachment styles tend to forget relationship-relevant information, as
Attachment security and intergroup contact
The contact hypothesis suggests that the interaction between members of different groups decreases prejudice. Moderators and mediators shaping this link have been investigated. However, research
The role of attachment avoidance and defensive fight in aggression
Attachment insecurity (i.e., levels of attachment anxiety and avoidance) is associated with interpersonal violence and aggression. However, evidence suggests that the associations are more consistent
Social attachments and traumatic stress
  • R. Bryant
  • Psychology
    European journal of psychotraumatology
  • 2016
A broader overview of social network analysis is introduced and it is proposed that a more sociocentric framework of trauma response would promote a fuller understanding of how social processes moderate trauma response.


The insecure/ambivalent pattern of attachment: theory and research.
Empirical work in which insecure/ambivalent individuals are examined as a separate group is reviewed within the context of attachment theory, and a coherent picture emerges of the antecedents and sequelae of this group.
Avoidance of Intimacy: An Attachment Perspective
A basic principle of attachment theory is that early attachment relationships with caregivers provide the prototype for later social relations. Working within an attachment framework, a new 4-group
Love and work: An attachment-theoretical perspective.
The possibility that love and work in adulthood are functionally similar to attachment and exploration in infancy and early childhood was investigated. Key components of attachment theory—developed
Attachment-related psychodynamics
It is shown that considerable progress has been made in testing central hypotheses derived from attachment theory and in exploring unconscious, psychodynamic processes related to affect-regulation and attachment-system activation.
Attachment as an Organizational Construct
Developmentalists have often conceptualized infant-adult ties in terms of an implicit trait construct evolved from the study of dependency. The major dimension of individual differences has been
Attachment Security, Compassion, and Altruism
Theoretically, people who have the benefits of secure social attachments should find it easier to perceive and respond to other people's suffering, compared with those who have insecure attachments.
Romantic love conceptualized as an attachment process.
This article explores the possibility that romantic love is an attachment process--a biosocial process by which affectional bonds are formed between adult lovers, just as affectional bonds are formed
The attachment working models concept: Among other things, we build script-like representations of secure base experiences
The concept of a secure base script is defined, a method for assessing a person's knowledge/access to a securebase script is outlined, and evidence that script-like representations are an important component of the working models concept is reviewed.
Genetic Correlates of Adult Attachment Style
Findings suggest that attachment insecurities are partially explained by particular genes, although there is still a great deal of individual difference variance that remains to be explained by other genes or social experiences.