The Association of Alcohol‐Induced Blackouts and Grayouts to Blood Alcohol Concentrations

@article{Perry2006TheAO,
  title={The Association of Alcohol‐Induced Blackouts and Grayouts to Blood Alcohol Concentrations},
  author={Paul James Perry and Tami R. Argo and Mitchell J. Barnett and Jill L. Liesveld and Barry I. Liskow and Jillian M. Hernan and Michael G. Trnka and Mary A. Brabson},
  journal={Journal of Forensic Sciences},
  year={2006},
  volume={51}
}
ABSTRACT: The primary aim of this study was to investigate the association between measured blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and the presence and degree of amnesia (no amnesia, grayout, or blackout) in actively drinking subjects. A secondary aim was to determine potential factors other than BAC that contribute to the alcohol‐induced memory loss. An interview questionnaire was administered to subjects regarding a recent alcohol associated arrest with a documented BAC greater than 0.08 g/dL for… 
Alcohol-Induced Blackout: Phenomenology, Biological Basis, and Gender Differences
TLDR
Women are more susceptible to blackouts and undergo a slower recovery from cognitive impairment than men, due in part to the effect of gender differences in pharmacokinetics and body composition on alcohol bioavailability.
Alcohol-Induced Blackouts as Predictors of Other Drinking Related Harms Among Emerging Young Adults.
TLDR
Having a blackout was the strongest independent predictor of most other alcohol problems examined, including in the past 6 months because of drinking, missing class or work, getting behind in work or school, doing something respondents later regretted, arguing with friends, experiencing an overdose, and total number of alcohol problems reported.
Elevated rate of alcohol consumption in borderline personality disorder patients in daily life
TLDR
Faster consumption may serve as a means for BPD individuals to maximize the rewarding pharmacological effects of alcohol and to increase positive and reduce negative affect.
Rate of alcohol consumption in the daily life of adolescents and emerging adults
TLDR
Rate of consumption in the daily lives of problem drinkers ages 16–24 years highlights the value of rate of consumption as an indicator of use in youth, one sensitive to the influence of relevant person-level and situational factors.
Alcohol-Induced Blackouts: A Review of Recent Clinical Research with Practical Implications and Recommendations for Future Studies.
TLDR
It is suggested that individual differences, not just alcohol consumption, increase the likelihood of experiencing an alcohol-induced blackout, and the consequences of alcohol- induced blackouts extend beyond the consequences related to the drinking episode to include psychiatric symptoms and neurobiological abnormalities.
Binge Drinking’s Effects on the Body
TLDR
Understanding of the effects of binge alcohol drinking and identification of underlying pathophysiological processes responsible for tissue and organ injury can lead to development of preventive or therapeutic interventions to reduce the health care burden associated with binge alcohol Drinking.
Face validity of a pre‐clinical model of operant binge drinking: just a question of speed
TLDR
The novel pre‐clinical model based on voluntary operant BD can now provide animals voluntarily consuming very rapidly enough alcohol to achieve intoxication levels and thus allowing the study of the complex interaction between individual and environmental factors underlying BD behavior.
The Burden of Alcohol Use
TLDR
Recent findings about the causes and consequences of excessive drinking among college students relative to their non-college peers are examined and many of the strategies used to collect and analyze relevant data are examined, as well as the inherent hurdles and limitations of such strategies.
Subjective measures of binge drinking and alcohol-specific adverse health outcomes: a prospective cohort study.
TLDR
Subjectively defined intoxications, hangovers and alcohol-induced pass-outs are population-level proxy measures of at-risk drinking patterns and predicted future alcohol-specific diagnoses independently of average intake and of several other potential confounders.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 12 REFERENCES
Drinking-induced blackouts among young adults: results from a national longitudinal study.
TLDR
It is concluded that the blackout remission rate observed among a substantial proportion (68%) of young adults may not fit the progressive, irreversible model of alcoholism.
Experiential Aspects of Alcohol‐Induced Blackouts Among College Students
TLDR
Characteristics ofblackouts among college students in the present study are compared to the standard model of blackouts based on reports from alcoholics, and half of all subjects reported having been frightened by their last blackout experience.
Loss of Short Term Memory as a Predictor of the Alcoholic “Blackout”
TLDR
Memory must be observed systematically during drinking periods followed by amnesia, which heretofore has not been done, to confirm that the amnesia is retrograde.
Alcoholic "blackouts": a review and clinical study of 100 alcoholics.
TLDR
This study revealed that more than one-third of the subjects had never experienced a blackout, and that, among those who did report the experience, blackouts generally began well along in the course of alcoholism rather than at an early stage.
Fragmentary and en bloc blackouts: similarity and distinction among episodes of alcohol-induced memory loss.
TLDR
It is found that the two blackout types exhibited a similar range and distribution of corresponding blood alcohol concentrations and most en bloc blackouts involved concurrent use of illicit substances; polysubstance use was reported for few fragmentary blackouts.
Alcohol and memory: amnesia and short-term memory function during experimentally induced intoxication.
TLDR
This study represents the first attempt to examine the alcoholic blackout during a sustained period of experimental intoxication among male alcoholics with histories of blackouts with significantly and progressively impaired short-term memory with increasing levels of intoxication.
Two species of alcoholic "blackout".
  • D. W. Goodwin
  • Medicine, Psychology
    The American journal of psychiatry
  • 1971
TLDR
The author contrasts this "state-dependent" effect with "amnesia" and explores possible explanations for both.
Alcoholic blackouts: legal implications.
  • D. Sweeney
  • Medicine
    Journal of substance abuse treatment
  • 1990
A Factor Analytic Study of the Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory (SASSI)
The Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory (SASSI) is a widely used but little studied screening test for substance misuse. The present study was the first to examine the test’s factor structure
Alcohol amnesia.
...
...