The Ascending Mesolimbic Cholinergic System—A Specific Division of the Reticular Activating System Involved in the Initiation of Negative Emotional States

  title={The Ascending Mesolimbic Cholinergic System—A Specific Division of the Reticular Activating System Involved in the Initiation of Negative Emotional States},
  author={Stefan M. Brudzyński},
  journal={Journal of Molecular Neuroscience},
  • S. Brudzyński
  • Published 1 July 2014
  • Biology, Psychology
  • Journal of Molecular Neuroscience
The review summarizes evidences from extensive studies suggesting that ascending mesolimbic cholinergic system (AMCS) that terminates in vast areas of forebrain and diencephalic limbic areas is responsible for specific generation of aversive arousal and aversive emotional state. This state is accompanied by emission of threatening and/or alarming vocalizations that served as a quantitative measure of the emotional response. The AMCS originates from the cholinergic neurons within the… 
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The Brainstem in Emotion: A Review
A conceptual framework for neuroscience, psychology and behavioral science researchers to study brainstem involvement in human emotions is provided and it is shown that the human brainstem contributes to the evaluation of sensory information and triggers fixed-action pattern responses that together constitute the finely differentiated spectrum of possible emotions.
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Results show that cholinergic output from PPTg is essential for rapidly regenerating the ASR, but has no influence on PPI, which is widely viewed as mediating both PPI and ASR.
Brain-wide Mapping of Mono-synaptic Afferents to Different Cell Types in the Laterodorsal Tegmentum
Diverse inputs to the laterodorsal tegmentum on a system-wide level were revealed, including those of the ventral tegmental area, central amygdaloid nucleus, and VO, which made significantly greater inputs to somatostatin-positive cells than to PV+ cells.
The Innate Alarm System and Subliminal Threat Presentation in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Neuroimaging of the Midbrain and Cerebellum
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Pharmacology of Ultrasonic Vocalizations in adult Rats: Significance, Call Classification and Neural Substrate
Pharmacological studies of emotional arousal and initiation of emotional states in rats measured by their ultrasonic vocalizations are reviewed. It is postulated that emission of vocalizations is an


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Regional specificity of the emotional-aversive response induced by carbachol in the cat brain: a quantitative mapping study.
It is suggested that carbachol mapping selectively delineates the muscarinic cholinoceptive portion of the aversive, emotional brain system.
The two-arousal hypothesis: reticular formation and limbic system.
It is shown how an analysis of brain function assuming two arousal systems may be of value in understanding reinforcement as part of a reciprocal relation between drive and incentive (Arousal System II).
Reassessment of the structural basis of the ascending arousal system
In rats the reticulo‐thalamo‐cortical pathway may play a very limited role in behavioral or electrocortical arousal, whereas the projection from the parabrachial nucleus and precoeruleus region, relayed by the basal forebrain to the cerebral cortex, may be critical for this process.
Modulation of Cortical Activation and Behavioral Arousal by Cholinergic and Orexinergic Systems
  • B. Jones
  • Biology, Psychology
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • 2008
A recently discovered peptide called orexin (Orx) or hypocretin, contained in diffusely projecting neurons of the hypothalamus, was found to be essential for the maintenance of waking with muscle tone, since in its absence narcolepsy with cataplexy occurred.
Ascending conduction in reticular activating system, with special reference to the diencephalon.
The results indicate that the ventromedial part of the thalamus is most critically involved in transmission of the reticular activating influence, with the rest of theThalamus (including the diffuse thalamic projection system) playing a subsidiary role.