The Arrival of the Frequent: How Bias in Genotype-Phenotype Maps Can Steer Populations to Local Optima

  title={The Arrival of the Frequent: How Bias in Genotype-Phenotype Maps Can Steer Populations to Local Optima},
  author={Steffen Schaper and Ard A. Louis},
  journal={PLoS ONE},
Genotype-phenotype (GP) maps specify how the random mutations that change genotypes generate variation by altering phenotypes, which, in turn, can trigger selection. Many GP maps share the following general properties: 1) The total number of genotypes is much larger than the number of selectable phenotypes; 2) Neutral exploration changes the variation that is accessible to the population; 3) The distribution of phenotype frequencies , with the number of genotypes mapping onto phenotype , is… 

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