The Applications of Molecular Markers in Genetics and Breeding of Hemp

  title={The Applications of Molecular Markers in Genetics and Breeding of Hemp},
  author={Giuseppe Mandolino and Paolo Ranalli},
  journal={Journal of Industrial Hemp},
  pages={23 - 7}
Abstract Molecular markers were employed to the characterization and analysis of hemp genetic structure by using RAPD technique. The results are presented about the statistical treatment of the molecular data. In addition, markers tightly linked to the male sex and their applications are discussed, and a short protocol for direct amplification of such markers from hemp tissue is provided. A molecular map of hemp, including a number of RAPD markers obtained from a progeny of a cross between a… 

Potential of marker-assisted selection in hemp genetic improvement

Active research is carried out by several groups in the field of identification and characterization of the genes involved in fiber quality and quantity, and in the determination of monoecy, another very important target of hemp breeding.

Marker assisted selection and genomics of industrial plants

From the earliest, labour intensive and time-consuming applications to the study of the natural populations, to the massive exploitation in genome mapping of important plant species, it took less than half a century for molecular markers to become a fundamental tool of theoretical and applied genetics.

Genomics and Molecular Markers in Cannabis sativa L.

In this chapter, the development of different types of molecular markers and their application to the most relevant traits for Cannabis breeding are described and discussed.

Identification of QTLs for sex expression in dioecious and monoecious hemp (Cannabis sativa L.)

The role of sex chromosomes in the genetic determinism of sex expression in dioecious and monoecious hemp is investigated and five sex-linked markers were detected in UF, revealing homologies between the X chromosomes of monoeciously hemp and the X and Y chromosomes of dioemious hemp.

Current status and future scenarios of hemp breeding

The advances in basic and applied research make it possible to design methods for the identification of superior parents and cross combinations and the development of selection schemes that rely on less labour-intensive and time-consuming methods.


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The sexual differentiation of Cannabis sativa L.: A morphological and molecular study

A morphological and molecular study of Cannabis sativa sexual differentiation has been carried out in the Italian dioecious cultivar Fibranova, and several cDNA-AFLP polymorphic fragments identified have been confirmed to be differentially expressed in male and female apices at the fourth node.

The Complex Interactions Between Flowering Behavior and Fiber Quality in Hemp

The current knowledge of phenotypic and genetic data available for “flowering-time,” “sex determination,’ and “fiber quality” in short-day and dioecious crops, respectively, are reviewed and a picture emerges for several controlling key genes, for which natural genetic variation may lead to desired flowering behavior.

Qualitative and Quantitative Aspects of the Inheritance of Chemical Phenotype in Cannabis

A segregation analysis of the different F2 progenies obtained showed that chemotype, estimated as CBD/THC ratio, behaves as a qualitative character, and a model for a single locus B, with two co-dominant alleles, B D and B T is described.

Genetic evidence for speciation in Cannabis (Cannabaceae)

  • K. Hillig
  • Biology
    Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution
  • 2003
A polytypic concept of Cannabis is proposed, which recognizes three species, C. indica and C. ruderalis, and seven putative taxa, and none of the previous taxonomic concepts that were tested adequately circumscribe the sativa and indica gene pools.



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The correlations among the molecular data and the genetic structure of the different cultivars and the consequences in relation to variety discrimination in hemp are discussed.

Identification of DNA markers linked to the male sex in dioecious hemp (Cannabis sativa L.)

A 400-bp RAPD marker generated by a primer of random decamer sequence has been found associated with the male sex phenotype in 14 dioecious cultivars and accessions of hemp and is suitable for a precise, early and rapid identification of male plants during breeding programs of dIOecious and monoecious hemp.

Development of sex-linked PCR markers for gender identification in Actinidia

The sex-linked SCAR primers functioned with plants from some other geographically separate accessions of A. chinensis and with plants in the closely related polyploid species A. deliciosa, but did not amplify a sex- linked band in more distantly related species of Actinidia.

Identification of sex in hop (Humulus lupulus) using molecular markers.

Compared pools of male and female plants derived from a hop cross to identify molecular markers associated with the Y or male-specific chromosome, primers developed from the DNA sequence of this product provide a marker for rapid sex identification in crosses of hop by means of PCR.

RAPD and SCAR markers linked to the sex expression locus M in asparagus

Bulk segregant analysis, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) methods were used to map molecular markers to the sex locus M of asparagus, and could be used for scoring male and female progeny in the mapping population.

Genetic diversity of Cannabis sativa germplasm based on RAPD markers

RAPD markers provide a powerful tool for the investigation of genetic variation in cultivars/accessions of hemp and Variability within the two cultivars ‘Carmagnola’ and ‘Fibranova1’ was shown, suggesting good possibilities for long–term selection work.

Identification of a RAPD marker linked to sex determination in Pistacia vera using bulked segregant analysis

The OPO08945 RAPD marker could be used in a breeding program to screen the gender of pistachio plants long before they reach reproductive maturity, resulting in considerable savings of time and economic resources.

AFLP-derived STS markers for the identification of sex in Asparagus officinalis L.

Five STS markers from previously mapped, low-copy, sex-linked AFLP markers can be utilized for fine mapping of the sex gene in asparagus, which will pave the way for a map-based cloning approach.

Characterization; Genome Sizes and Morphology of Sex Chromosomes in Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.).

Results indicate that the Y chromosome, especially in its long arm, specifically differentiates in Cannabis sativa and might contribute to the sex determination.

Comparison of Cannabis sativa by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and HPLC of cannabinoids: a preliminary study.