The Aerodynamics of Free-Flight Maneuvers in Drosophila

  title={The Aerodynamics of Free-Flight Maneuvers in Drosophila},
  author={Steven N. Fry and Rosalyn W. Sayaman and Michael H. Dickinson},
  pages={495 - 498}
Using three-dimensional infrared high-speed video, we captured the wing and body kinematics of free-flying fruit flies as they performed rapid flight maneuvers. We then “replayed” the wing kinematics on a dynamically scaled robotic model to measure the aerodynamic forces produced by the wings. The results show that a fly generates rapid turns with surprisingly subtle modifications in wing motion, which nonetheless generate sufficient torque for the fly to rotate its body through each turn. The… 
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Aerodynamic damping during rapid flight maneuvers in the fruit fly Drosophila
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The FCT model predicts that isometrically scaled animals experience similar damping on a per-wingbeat time scale, resulting in similar turning dynamics in wingbeat time regardless of body size.
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This study aimed to numerically simulate aerodynamic forces produced by wing motion of small fruit flies maneuvering freely inside a flight chamber. The kinematic data were derived from


Flight in Drosophila : I. Flight Performance of Tethered Flies
Evidence is presented suggesting that these measurements are applicable to free flight, and the adaptive significance of the absence of a ‘lift-control reaction’ in fruit-flies is discussed.
The relationship between body angle and flight speed in free‐flying Drosophila
The measured groundspeed of free fliers increased with starvation, not because of the change in weight and thus in the power‐to‐weight ratio, but through behavioural regulation of power output.
Flight Performance and Visual Control of Flight of the Free-Flying Housefly (Musca Domestica L.) I. Organization of the Flight Motor
The analysis of the organization of the flight motor from the kinematic data leads to the following conclusions: the sideways movements can, at least qualitatively, be explained by taking into account the sideways forces resulting from rolling the body about the long axis and the influence of inertia.
Blowfly flight and optic flow. I. Thorax kinematics and flight dynamics
The sequence of energy investment in consecutive rotations around different axes appears to be optimized during a saccade, which correspond to torques consistent with the maximal force that can be generated by the flight motor as inferred from the maximal linear acceleration.
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Comparative experiments with the housefly Musca domestica indicate that the principle of independent torque and thrust control by vision is adopted in at least two different species.
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The visually guided flight behaviour of groups of male and femaleyritta pipiens was filmed at 50 f.p.s. and analysed frame by frame and it was shown that to synchronise the two flies the sideways tracking system must also be operative.
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Musterinduzierte Flugorientierung
The spontaneous fixation and differentiation of elementary patterns by the visual system of the fly Musca domestica has been investigated by quantitative behavioral analysis. I t is shown that an
References and Notes
our experimentation could eventually be used to discredit our findings, should they happen not to agree with the original observations. It seems important that all experiments in the rapidly