The Adverse Effects of Smoking on Health Outcomes in Bipolar Disorder: A Review and Synthesis of Biological Mechanisms.


Several biological systems are implicated in the neuroprogression of bipolar disorder including but not limited to cytokine levels, oxidative stress markers, monoamine levels, tryptophan catabolite and glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity, microglial activation as well as structural and functional changes. The high rate of smoking behaviour in individuals with… (More)