The Active Denial System. A Revolutionary, Non-lethal Weapon for Today's Battlefield

@inproceedings{Levine2009TheAD,
  title={The Active Denial System. A Revolutionary, Non-lethal Weapon for Today's Battlefield},
  author={Susan D. Levine},
  year={2009}
}
Abstract : Since the end of the Cold War, U.S. Armed Forces have participated in many operations that combine military operations against combatants in situations where the civilian population is at risk. Such complex operations, as they are now called, necessarily place troops in close contact with local civilians?and sometimes in confrontations that lead to violence. Use of force against civilians can create local tensions that undermine efforts to rebuild a society and, thanks to the… 

Figures from this paper

Viable short-term directed energy weapon naval solutions: a systems analysis of current prototypes
Abstract : With conventional weapons nearing their peak capability, the need to identify alternative war fighting solutions suggests a look at Directed Energy Weapons (DEWs). The goal is to change
The History and Use of Electromagnetic Weapons
This thesis is about the origin and development of electromagnetic weapons used in policing and military tasks as a non-lethal tool. The electromagnetic weapon was taken into consideration as a
Exposure Assessment to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields in Occupational Military Scenarios: A Review
TLDR
The review showed that in the exposure conditions here evaluated, there were only occasional situations of overexposure, whereas in the majority of the conditions the exposure was below the worker exposure limits.
Impact of low intensity millimetre waves on cell functions
TLDR
A series of experiments are presented which show changes in cell membrane potential and the action potential firing rate of cortical neurons under short (1 min) exposures to continuous-wave 60 GHz radiation at µW/cm2 power levels, more than 1000 times below the US government maximum permissible exposure.
A Review on the Applications of High Power, High Frequency Microwave Source: Gyrotron
The gyro oscillators or simply gyrotrons are used in a variety of applications where high electromagnetic power is required at millimeter/submillimeter wave frequencies. The research on the gyrotron
Microwave and Millimeter Wave Power Beaming
Power beaming is the efficient point-to-point transfer of electrical energy across free space by a directive electromagnetic beam. This paper clarifies the basic principles of power beaming in simple
Comments on Neufeld and Kuster, "Systematic Derivation of Safety Limits for Time-varying 5G Radiofrequency Exposure Based on Analytical Models and Thermal Dose".
TLDR
The use of a grossly inappropriate thermal model leads to extreme overestimates that negate the usefulness of the analysis for setting exposure limits for short pulses, and a worst-case exposure situation in which the “entire deliverable power over one time-averaging interval is deposited during a small fraction a of the averaging period Dt at an intensity I0.
5 G wireless telecommunications expansion: Public health and environmental implications
Safe for Generations to Come.
TLDR
This work states that millimeterwave (mmWave) frequencies are very promising for future wireless communication networks due to the massive amount of raw bandwidth and potential multigigabit-per-second (Gb/s) data rates.
Effects of millimeter wave irradiation and equivalent thermal heating on the activity of individual neurons in the leech ganglion
TLDR
The mechanism of enhanced narrowing of action potentials and suppressed firing by MMW irradiation, compared with that by gradual bath heating, is hypothesized to involve specific coupling of MMW energy with the neuronal plasma membrane.
...
...