The Actinorhizal Symbiosis

@article{Wall2000TheAS,
  title={The Actinorhizal Symbiosis},
  author={Luis Gabriel Wall},
  journal={Journal of Plant Growth Regulation},
  year={2000},
  volume={19},
  pages={167-182}
}
  • L. Wall
  • Published 2000
  • Medicine, Biology
  • Journal of Plant Growth Regulation
A bstractThe term ``actinorhiza'' refers both to the filamentous bacteria Frankia, an actinomycete, and to the root location of nitrogen-fixing nodules. Actinorhizal plants are classified into four subclasses, eight families, and 25 genera comprising more than 220 species. Although ontogenically related to lateral roots, actinorhizal nodules are characterized by differentially expressed genes, supporting the idea of the uniqueness of this new organ. Two pathways for root infection have been… Expand
Actinorhizal symbioses : diversity and biogeography
The actinobacterial genus Frankia encompasses sporulating filamentous bacteria (actinomycetes) that fix N2; they are defined by their ability to induce N2-fixing root nodules on a broad range ofExpand
CHAPTER 7 – Actinorhizal symbioses
TLDR
Actinorhizal root nodules are nitrogen-fixing symbioses between the actinomycete Frankia and roots of dicotyledonous plants belonging to 25 genera from eight different plant families and have been analyzed physiologically and with molecular methods. Expand
Molecular Methods for Research on Actinorhiza
TLDR
An inventory of the main recent molecular tools and techniques developed for studying actinorhizae is reported, mainly linked to the woody nature of the plant species and the lack of genetic tools for their bacterial symbionts. Expand
Induction of Actinorhizal Nodules by Frankia
TLDR
An overview of infection mechanisms and nodule structure is given; comparisons with the corresponding mechanisms in legume–rhizobia symbioses are presented. Expand
Establishment of Actinorhizal Symbioses
TLDR
This chapter summarises the current knowledge of the signalling mechanisms and cellular events that occur during the establishment of actinorhizal symbioses, and describes what is known about the signal exchanges occurring prior to infection. Expand
Evolution and biogeography of actinorhizal plants and legumes: A comparison
TLDR
These characteristic features of the legume‐rhizobia symbiosis, specifically legumes' greater flexibility in the choice of microsymbiont partner and the evolution of increased efficiencies in N2 fixation, are suggested to be factors that can explain why the majority of species within the Leguminosae have retained the ability to nodulate and how this has contributed to their evolutionary success. Expand
Actinorhizal nitrogen fixing nodules: infection process, molecular biology and genomics
TLDR
With progress in plant genome sequencing, comparative genomics in legumes and actinorhizal plants should contribute to the understanding of the evolutionary history of nitrogen-fixing symbioses. Expand
Composite Actinorhizal Plants with Transgenic Roots for the Study of Symbiotic Associations with Frankia
TLDR
A gene transfer system based on Agrobacterium rhizogenes that opens the possibility to rapidly analyze the function of candidate symbiotic genes is reviewed and the potential of this technique to advancing the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying infection by Frankia is demonstrated by functional analyses of symbiosis genes. Expand
Biology of the Frankia-Alnus maritima subsp. maritima symbiosis
TLDR
If nitrogen fixation is sustained under unfavorable conditions, woody plants that associate with nitrogenfixing organisms may show enhanced tolerance of environmental stress; species of plants capable of nitrogen-fixing symbioses are known to have comparatively strong resistance to invasion by pathogens. Expand
Transformed Hairy Roots of the actinorhizal shrub Discaria trinervis: a valuable tool for studying actinorhizal symbiosis in the context of intercellular infection
TLDR
To decipher the molecular mechanisms underlying intercellular infection with Frankia, this work set up an efficient genetic transformation protocol for D. trinervis based on A. rhizogenes, an actinorhizal shrub belonging to the Rosales order. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 171 REFERENCES
Biology of Frankia strains, actinomycete symbionts of actinorhizal plants.
TLDR
Sufficient information about the relationship of Frankia strains to other bacteria, and to each other, is now available to warrant the creation of some species based on phenotypic and genetic criteria. Expand
Actinorhizal symbioses and their N2 fixation.
More than 200 angiosperms, distributed in 25 genera, develop root nodule symbioses (actinorhizas) with soil bacteria of the actinomycetous genus Frankia. Although most soils studied contain infectiveExpand
Actinorhizal Symbioses : Recent Advances in Plant Molecular and Genetic Transformation Studies
Infection of actinorhizal plants roots by the actinomycete Frankia leads to the formation of a nitrogen-fixing root nodule (actinorhiza) consisting of multiple lobes, each of which is a modifiedExpand
Morphogenesis and fine structure of Frankia (Actinomycetales): the microsymbiont of nitrogen-fixing actinorhizal root nodules.
TLDR
The genus Frankia is characterized by the ability to form nitrogen-fixing nodules on the roots of certain woody angiosperms and may be distinguished from other actinomycetes by their morphogenetic patterns in vivo and in vitro; cell wall chemistry, serology, and DNA homology; and surface laminations of the spore cell wall. Expand
Rhizobial and Actinorhizal Symbioses: What Are the Shared Features?
TLDR
This review discusses the recent progress in research on endophytic symbioses involving plant roots, special attention is given to nitrogen-fixing symbiotic interactions, and the current knowledge of nodule formation and function is summarized. Expand
Natural Diversity of Frankia Strains in Actinorhizal Root Nodules from Promiscuous Hosts in the Family Myricaceae
TLDR
Actinorhizal plants invade nitrogen-poor soils because of their ability to form root nodule symbioses with N2-fixing actinomycetes known as Frankia, and it is found that strain evenness varies greatly between the plant species so that estimating total strain richness of Frankia within myricaceous nodules with the sample size used was problematical. Expand
Differential gene expression in an actinorhizal symbiosis: evidence for a nodule-specific cysteine proteinase.
TLDR
Northern hybridization results indicate that this gene may have been recruited for a role specific to this symbiosis, and complexity of hybridization patterns revealed by Southern blot analysis suggests that the gene for AgNOD-CP1 is a member of a multigene family. Expand
Mycorrhizae of actinorhizal plants
TLDR
To establish an efficient triple symbiosis consideration must be given to endophyte specificity and genetic variability, inoculation regimes and environmental factors, and the importance of a mycorrhizal association in relation to the resistance of certain actinorhizal plants to water stress and to pathogens will be discussed. Expand
Characterization of an ineffective actinorhizal microsymbiont, Frankia sp. EuI1 (Actinomycetales).
TLDR
Cross-inoculation studies indicated that the host range of this symbiont is narrow and probably restricted to the Elaeagnaceae, and the morphogenetic block is apparently restricted to vesicle formation. Expand
Phylogenetic relationships among actinorhizal plants. The impact of molecular systematics and implications for the evolution of actinorhizal symbioses
TLDR
By comparing host phylogenies and recently published bacterial phylogenies, the coevolution of bacterial symbionts with their actinorhizal hosts is considered and it is indicated that symbioses have probably arisen more than once. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...