The ATP synthase: the understood, the uncertain and the unknown.

  title={The ATP synthase: the understood, the uncertain and the unknown.},
  author={John E. Walker},
  journal={Biochemical Society transactions},
  volume={41 1},
  • J. Walker
  • Published 1 February 2013
  • Biology
  • Biochemical Society transactions
The ATP synthases are multiprotein complexes found in the energy-transducing membranes of bacteria, chloroplasts and mitochondria. They employ a transmembrane protonmotive force, Δp, as a source of energy to drive a mechanical rotary mechanism that leads to the chemical synthesis of ATP from ADP and Pi. Their overall architecture, organization and mechanistic principles are mostly well established, but other features are less well understood. For example, ATP synthases from bacteria… 

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