The ANC, MK, and ‘The Turn to Violence’ (1960–1962)

@article{Landau2012TheAM,
  title={The ANC, MK, and ‘The Turn to Violence’ (1960–1962)},
  author={Paul S. Landau},
  journal={South African Historical Journal},
  year={2012},
  volume={64},
  pages={538 - 563}
}
  • Paul S. Landau
  • Published 7 August 2012
  • Political Science
  • South African Historical Journal
Abstract Why did the African National Congress (ANC) appear to embrace violence in 1961? Can one say it did so? Was the Communist Party responsible behind the scenes? What did the ‘turn to violence’ mean? With a plethora of new sources and reminiscences emerging, one can begin to craft a set of answers. Communists as Communists did not determine the timing of the ANC's embrace of MK (Umkhonto we-Sizwe, ‘Spear of the Nation’). The ANC was a large member-based organisation which could not nimbly… 
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