The 2000 US Presidential Election: Can Retrospective Voting Be Saved?

@article{Fiorina2003The2U,
  title={The 2000 US Presidential Election: Can Retrospective Voting Be Saved?},
  author={Morris P. Fiorina and Samuel Abrams and Jeremy C. Pope},
  journal={British Journal of Political Science},
  year={2003},
  volume={33},
  pages={163 - 187}
}
According to a portrait of elections widely held in academic political science, election outcomes depend on the ‘fundamentals’, especially peace and prosperity. Al Gore's election showing in 2000 runs counter to the preceding interpretation of elections. Objective conditions pointed to a comfortable victory, if not a landslide, but Gore's narrow popular vote margin fell well below the expectations held by many political scientists. This article attempts to account for Gore's under-performance… 
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