The 2 Sigma Problem: The Search for Methods of Group Instruction as Effective as One-to-One Tutoring

  title={The 2 Sigma Problem: The Search for Methods of Group Instruction as Effective as One-to-One Tutoring},
  author={Benjamin Samuel Bloom},
  journal={Educational Researcher},
  pages={16 - 4}
  • B. Bloom
  • Published 1 June 1984
  • Education
  • Educational Researcher
T w o University of Chicago doctoral students in education, Anania (1982, 1983) and Burke (1984), completed dissertations in which they compared student learning under the following three conditions of instruction: 1. Conventional. Students learn the subject matter in a class with about 30 students per teacher. Tests are given periodically for marking the students. 2. Mastery Learning. Students learn the subject matter in a class with about 30 students per teacher. The instruction is the same… 

Synthesis of Research: Teaching Whole-Group Classrooms.

Whole-group instruction is the most traditional and common form of classroom organization. Teachers generally gear their teaching to the "mythical" average student on the assumption that this level

Teach-Practice-Apply: The Tpa Instruction Model, K-8

The final chapter examines how the TPA model and the instructional strategies enhance student achievement, and offers suggestions for the teacher.

Cognitive Computer Tutors: Solving the Two-Sigma Problem

Examination of the achievement effect size of two types of student-adapted instruction in a cognitive programming tutor suggests that cognitive tutors have closed the gap with and arguably surpass human tutors.

Informative Testing—a Practical Approach for Tutoring With Groups

Most educators would agree that the ideal learning situation would be one in which each student had his or her own personal instructor. In fact, achievement test scores of the average student in a

The impact of instructor initiative on student learning: a tutoring study

No difference in average learning gains was found between a moderate approach, in which students were given control of problem solving nearly half the time, and a proactive approach in which the tutor took initiative nearly three-fourths of the time.

The Effects of an After-School Tutoring Program on the Academic Performance of At-Risk Students and Students with LD

Improving the educational outcomes for students who are at risk for academic failure is an important issue for educators and policymakers. Recently, before- and after-school tutoring programs have

Personalized Feedback: Testing a Tutoring System That Was Informed by Learning Analytics

Computer-based tutoring systems have been extensively studied and shown to be generally effective. In this study, I worked with an online beginner’s course that teaches spreadsheets basics to

Effects of Accountability on Students' Achievement in Mastery Learning

Abstract A teacher-directed, videodisc-based program for teaching fractions to fifth-grade students was used to examine the factor of accountability in mastery learning programs. The videodisc-based



Educational Outcomes of Tutoring: A Meta-analysis of Findings

A meta-analysis of findings from 65 independent evaluations of school tutoring programs showed that these programs have positive effects on the academic performance and attitudes of those who receive

Reading Instruction: A Quantitative Analysis

Concerned with the need for documenting the effects of instructional method on reading achievement, Huey, after the turn of the century (1908), wrote "we have thus far been content with trial and

The New Direction in Educational Research: Alterable Variables

A major revolution has taken place during the past decade in educational research and our understanding of some of the factors that directly influence learning in or out of the schools. As a result,

A Meta-Analysis of Experimental Research on Teacher Questioning Behavior

The meta-analytic technique was used to synthesize experimental research findings on the relationship between level of teacher questioning and student achievement. Twenty studies on teachers’ use of

Teachers' communication of differential expectations for children's classroom performance: Some beha

The processes by which teachers communicate differential performance expectations to different children were investigated through observational study of dyadic contacts between teachers and

Learning as a Function of Time

AbstractMeasures of instructional time are grouped into four ranges-years, days, hours, and minutes-and the strength of the association to outcomes is reviewed within each grouping. Time predicts

Instructional Effects of Cues, Participation, and Corrective Feedback: A Quantitative Synthesis

To estimate the instructional effects of cues, participation, and corrective feedback on learning, 94 effect sizes were calculated from statistical data in 54 studies containing a combined sample of

Socio‐psychological Environments and Learning: a quantitative synthesis

Abstract To estimate the sign and size of correlations between student perceptions of social‐psychological environments of their classes and learning outcomes, 734 correlations from 12 studies on 823

The use of advance organizers in the learning and retention of meaningful verbal material.

The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that the learning and retention of unfamiliar but meaningful verbal material can be facilitated by the advance introduction of relevant subsuming

The Home Environment and School Achievement.