The 1932 and 1944 Nobel Prizes in Physiology or Medicine: Rewards for Ground-Breaking Studies in Neurophysiology

@article{Grant2006The1A,
  title={The 1932 and 1944 Nobel Prizes in Physiology or Medicine: Rewards for Ground-Breaking Studies in Neurophysiology},
  author={Gunnar Grant},
  journal={Journal of the History of the Neurosciences},
  year={2006},
  volume={15},
  pages={341 - 357}
}
  • G. Grant
  • Published 22 November 2006
  • Philosophy, Medicine
  • Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
In 1932 Sherrington and Adrian were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine “for their discoveries regarding the functions of neurons” and in 1944 Erlanger and Gasser were awarded the same prize “for their discoveries relating to the highly differentiated functions of single nerve fibres.” Sherrington made important discoveries on the reflex functions of the spinal cord, formulated the concept of the “synapse,” defined the principle of the “final common path,” studied “reciprocal… 
Evidence for a trigeminal mesencephalic-hypoglossal nuclei loop involved in controlling vibrissae movements in the rat
TLDR
A possible role of the Me5 nucleus as a relay station in the sensory-motor loop that involves the XIIth nucleus neurons in rhythmic whisking control is analyzed, with particular regard to a hypothesized proprioceptive reflex in whisker-pad extrinsic muscles that can be elicited by the activation ofThe Me5 macrovibrissae receptors.
Synaptic connectivity of urinary bladder afferents in the rat superficial dorsal horn and spinal parasympathetic nucleus
TLDR
Investigating the synapses and neurotransmitters of identified afferents from the urinary bladder to the superficial laminae of the rat spinal dorsal horn and the spinal parasympathetic nucleus suggests that visceral sensory information conveyed via the bladder afferentes is processed differently in the DH than in the SPN, and differently from the way somatosensory information is processed in the spinal cord.
Central connectivity of the chorda tympani afferent terminals in the rat rostral nucleus of the solitary tract
TLDR
The central connectivity of the CT afferent terminals in the central subdivision of the rat rNST is investigated through retrograde labeling with horseradish peroxidase, immunogold staining for GABA, glycine, and glutamate, and quantitative ultrastructural analysis, which suggests that the gustatory signal is relayed to a specific group of neurons with a small degree of synaptic divergence.
Howard Florey and research on the cerebral circulation
  • D. Todman
  • Medicine, Psychology
    Journal of Clinical Neuroscience
  • 2008
TLDR
Howard Florey is best known as the scientist who developed penicillin and ushered in the modern antibiotic era and founded one of the leading schools of experimental pathology at Oxford.
Estradiol, Substance P, and the PI3K-Akt-mTOR Pathway in the Dorsal Horn of the Spinal Cord during Inflammatory Pain
TLDR
This study used female rats to investigate the impact of estrogens on sensory signaling by substance P, a neuropeptide that contributes to the development of chronic pain, and the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway, an intracellular mechanism of nervous system plasticity.
Small-fibre neuropathies—advances in diagnosis, pathophysiology and management
TLDR
Recent advances in the diagnosis and pathophysiology of small-fibre neuropathy are discussed, highlighting how improved understanding of these aspects of the disorder will contribute to better patient management.
Diagnosis and management of sensory polyneuropathy
TLDR
Sensory polyneuropathies are a heterogeneous group of disorders that range from the common diabetic neuropathy to the rare sensory neuronopathies and may include immunotherapy, mitigation of risk factors, symptomatic treatment, and gene therapy.
Morphological Observation of Sympathetic Nerve Fibers in the Human Posterior Longitudinal Ligament
TLDR
Sympathetic nerve fibers were confirmed to distribute in the human cervical posterior longitudinal ligament and the pathogenic mechanism responsible for cervical spondylosis remains unclear.
Sensory Polyneuropathies.
TLDR
Despite advances in diagnosing small fiber neuropathies and sensory neuronopathies, many of these Neuropathies remain refractory to treatment and should be considerediopathic.
Fix the problem – A practical guide to whole-mount immunohistochemistry of teased nerve fibres
TLDR
Sealed-slide immunostaining of tip-fixed and permeabilised nerve biopsies will help to validate neurophysiological abnormalities and to screen for target molecules and predictive markers of peripheral nerve disorders such as in inherited neuropathies and Guillain-Barré syndrome.
...
1
2
...

References

SHOWING 1-7 OF 7 REFERENCES
The impulses produced by sensory nerve endings
  • E. Adrian
  • Chemistry, Medicine
    The Journal of physiology
  • 1926
TLDR
An amplifier used in conjunction with the capillary electrometer and some preliminary observations with it on the action currents set up in sensory nerve fibres by appropriate stimulation of their end organs are described.
Integrative Action of the Nervous System
TLDR
The functions of the Brain and the Theories of their Relation are studied in detail in the second volume of Nick Wade's Mind and Body, which aims to clarify the role of the nervous system in human health.
The impulses produced by sensory nerve‐endings
TLDR
An instrument consisting of a capillary electrometer with a 3-valve amplifier, capable of recording the action currents set up in sensory nerve fibres by appropriate stimulation of their end-organs is described.
The basis of sensation: the action of the sense organs.
Original red cloth cover, 122 pages, 31 figures in text. VCO library stamp. This is a reprint of the first edition of 1928.
Review of Medical Physiology
TLDR
This book presents a systematic review of medical physiology using a probabilistic method, aiming at determining the basic principles of physiology and its applications in medicine.