The 1859 Solar–Terrestrial Disturbance And the Current Limits of Extreme Space Weather Activity

  title={The 1859 Solar–Terrestrial Disturbance And the Current Limits of Extreme Space Weather Activity},
  author={Edward W. Cliver and Leif Svalgaard},
  journal={Solar Physics},
It is generally appreciated that the September 1859 solar–terrestrial disturbance, the first recognized space weather event, was exceptionally large. How large and how exceptional? To answer these questions, we compiled rank order lists of the various measures of solar-induced disturbance for events from 1859 to the present. The parameters considered included: magnetic crochet amplitude, solar energetic proton fluence (McCracken et al., 2001a), Sun–Earth disturbance transit time, geomagnetic… 

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