The λ-Phenomenon of Liquid Helium and the Bose-Einstein Degeneracy

  title={The $\lambda$-Phenomenon of Liquid Helium and the Bose-Einstein Degeneracy},
  author={Fritz London},
IN a recent paper1 Fröhlich has tried to interpret the λ-phenomenon of liquid helium as an order–disorder transition between n holes and n helium atoms in a body-centred cubic lattice of 2n places. He remarks that a body-centred cubic lattice may be considered as consisting of two shifted diamond lattices, and he assumes that below the λ-point the helium atoms prefer the places of one of the two diamond lattices. The transition is treated on the lines of the Bragg-Williams-Bethe theory as a… 

Bose–Einstein Condensation and the λ Transition in Liquid Helium

Integrating seminal ideas of London, Feynman, Uhlenbeck, Bloch, Bardeen, and other illustrious antecessors, this paper continues the development of an ab initio theory of the λ transition in liquid

Bose Condensate in Superfluid 4He and Momentum Distributions by Deep Inelastic Scattering

In 1938 London [1,2] offered an explanation of the observation earlier that year of superfluid behavior in liquid 4He when it is cooled below a critical temperature of 2.17 °K. He argued that the

Quantum Statistics and Liquid Helium-3—Helium-4 Mixtures

It is argued, following Einstein and London, that Bose-Einstein statistics is important for understanding the behavior of superfluid 4He, while Fermi-Dirac statistics isimportant for understanding that of 3He, and a very simple model is constructed that predicts the most striking features of the phase diagrams of helium mixtures in the temperature-concentration plane.

Simulation of dynamical properties of normal and superfluid helium.

  • A. NakayamaN. Makri
  • Physics
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 2005
This simulation demonstrates that the peak enhancement observed in the neutron scattering experiments below the transition temperature arises exclusively from particle exchange, illuminating the role of Bose-statistical effects on the dynamics of the quantum liquid.

A study on quantum gases: bosons in optical lattices and the one-dimensional interacting Bose gas

Bosonic atoms confined in optical lattices are described by the Bose-Hubbard model and can exist in two different phases, Mott insulator or superfluid, depending on the strength of the system

Effective-action approach to dirty bosons in optical lattices

A system of cold bosonic atoms loaded in an optical lattice potential can undergo a macroscopic phase transition due to quantum fluctuations. As the depth of the lattice potential is increased, the

Excitations in the quantum liquid 4He: A review

  • H. Glyde
  • Physics
    Reports on progress in physics. Physical Society
  • 2017
The goal is to bring up to date the data, calculations and understanding of the excitations since the books and reviews of the early 1990s and show the interplay of these excitations with other spectacular properties such as superfluidity and the test of fundamental calculations of quantum liquids that is possible.



On Condensed Helium at Absolute Zero

The properties of helium at very low temperatures have recently been the subject of many investigations. Helium is the only substance which cannot be transformed into the solid state merely by

Behaviour of Condensed Helium near Absolute Zero

THE recently published measurements1 on some properties of condensed helium, in conjunction with the facts known from the work of Keesom and his co-workers2, allow us to draw some conclusions on the

Viscosity of Helium I and Helium II

DETERMINATIONS have recently been made in the Cryogenic Laboratory at Toronto of the viscosity of liquid helium in its two states, helium I and helium II.

New Phenomena Connected with Heat Flow in Helium II

SINCE publishing the preliminary measurements on thermal conduction in liquid helium II1 which showed a variation of conductivity with temperature gradient, further data have been collected