The [C ii] emission as a molecular gas mass tracer in galaxies at low and high redshifts

@article{Zanella2018TheI,
  title={The [C ii] emission as a molecular gas mass tracer in galaxies at low and high redshifts},
  author={Anita Zanella and Emanuele Daddi and Georgios E. Magdis and T Diaz Santos and Diane Cormier and D. Z. Liu and Anna Cibinel and Raphael Gobat and Mark E. Dickinson and Mark T. Sargent and Gerg{\"o} Popping and Suzanne C. Madden and Matthieu B{\'e}thermin and Thomas M. Hughes and Francesco M. Valentino and Wiphu Rujopakarn and Maurilio Pannella and Fr{\'e}d{\'e}ric Bournaud and Fabian Walter and T. Wang and David Elbaz and Rosemary T. Coogan},
  journal={Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society},
  year={2018}
}
We present ALMA Band 9 observations of the [C II]158um emission for a sample of 10 main-sequence galaxies at redshift z ~ 2, with typical stellar masses (log M*/Msun ~ 10.0 - 10.9) and star formation rates (~ 35 - 115 Msun/yr). Given the strong and well understood evolution of the interstellar medium from the present to z = 2, we investigate the behaviour of the [C II] emission and empirically identify its primary driver. We detect [C II] from six galaxies (four secure, two tentative) and… 

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The [C ii] 158 μm fine-structure line is the brightest emission line observed in local star-forming galaxies. As a major coolant of the gas-phase interstellar medium, [C ii] balances the heating,

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TLDR
It is found that nine typical star-forming galaxies about one billion years after the Big Bang have thermal emission that is less than 1/12 that of similar systems about two billion years later, and enhanced [C ii] emission relative to the far-infrared continuum, confirming a strong evolution in the properties of the interstellar medium in the early Universe.

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After two Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observing cycles, only a handful of [C ii] 158 μm emission line searches in z > 6 galaxies have reported a positive detection,

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The [C ii] 157.74 μm transition is the dominant coolant of the neutral interstellar gas, and has great potential as a star formation rate (SFR) tracer. Using the Herschel KINGFISH sample of 46 nearby

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Observations of ionised carbon at 158 micron ([CII]) from luminous star-forming galaxies at z~0 show that their ratios of [CII] to far infrared (FIR) luminosity are systematically lower than those of

A 158 μm [C ii] LINE SURVEY OF GALAXIES AT z ∼ 1–2: AN INDICATOR OF STAR FORMATION IN THE EARLY UNIVERSE

We have detected the 158 μm [C ii] line from 12 galaxies at z ∼ 1–2. This is the first survey of this important star formation tracer at redshifts covering the epoch of maximum star formation in the
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