The 'Brightness Rules' alternative conception for light bulb circuits

  title={The 'Brightness Rules' alternative conception for light bulb circuits},
  author={Joel A. Bryan and Carol Sue Liebe Stuessy},
  journal={Physics Education},
An alternative conception for the observed differences in light bulb brightness was revealed during an unguided inquiry investigation in which prospective elementary teachers placed identical bulbs in series, parallel, and combination direct current circuits. Classroom observations, document analyses, and video and audio transcriptions led to the discovery of this alternative conception, appropriately christened 'Brightness Rules'. Assessments administered three weeks after the activity… 
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