The "Testing" Phenomenon: Not Gone but Nearly Forgotten

  title={The "Testing" Phenomenon: Not Gone but Nearly Forgotten},
  author={John A. Glover},
The "testing" phenomenon refers to the finding that students who take a test on material between the time they first study and the time they take a final test remember more of the material than students who do not take an intervening test. 4 experiments examined the testing phenomenon in student's memory for brief passages and labels for parts of flowers. Experiments la and lb demonstrated the generality of the phenomenon to the methods and materials used in the current study. Experiment 2… 

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Not New, but Nearly Forgotten: the Testing Effect Decreases or even Disappears as the Complexity of Learning Materials Increases
The testing effect is a finding from cognitive psychology with relevance for education. It shows that after an initial study period, taking a practice test improves long-term retention compared to
Testing the limits of testing effects using completion tests
The results suggest that scope or type of processing required during retrieval practice is likely a critical factor in whether testing will have specific or robust benefits.
Test-Enhanced Learning
Investigation of the testing effect with educationally relevant materials and whether testing facilitates learning only because tests offer an opportunity to restudy material concluded that testing is a powerful means of improving learning, not just assessing it.
Generalizing test-enhanced learning from the laboratory to the classroom
Three experiments that extend the testing effect of brief articles, lectures, and materials in a college course to educationally relevant materials demonstrated a robust testing effect and revealed that an initial short-answer test produced greater gains on a final test than did an initial multiple-choice test.
When does testing enhance retention? A distribution-based interpretation of retrieval as a memory modifier.
The results suggest that the differential consequences of initial testing versus restudying reflect, in part, differences in how items distributions are shifted by testing and studying.
“None of the above” as a correct and incorrect alternative on a multiple-choice test: Implications for the testing effect
The results from both experiments demonstrated that the positive testing effect was negated when the “none-of-the-above” alternative was the correct response on the initial multiple-choice test, but was still present when the "none- of theabove" alternative was an incorrect response.
The Power of Testing Memory: Basic Research and Implications for Educational Practice
This article selectively review laboratory studies that reveal the power of testing in improving retention and then turns to studies that demonstrate the basic effects in educational settings, including the related concepts of dynamic testing and formative assessment.
Transfer-appropriate processing in the testing effect
The present experiment investigated transfer-appropriate processing in the testing effect using semantic and orthographic cues to evoke conceptual and data-driven processing, respectively, to suggest that theTesting effect could potentially be caused by the episodic retrieval processes in a final memory test overlapping more with the episodi retrieval process in a review test than with the encoding operations performed during restudy.
The effect of testing versus restudy on retention: a meta-analytic review of the testing effect.
Meta-analysis uses meta-analysis to examine the effects of testing versus restudy on retention and indicates support for the role of effortful processing as a contributor to the testing effect.
A dual memory theory of the testing effect
A new theoretical framework for the testing effect—the finding that retrieval practice is usually more effective for learning than are other strategies—is proposed, the empirically supported tenet of


Studies in retention.
The importance of retention is shown by the fact that growth or improvement in skills, knowledges, and attitudes is dependent upon the learner's retention of the effects of previous experience. The
Remembering operations
Results show that a considerable amount of information regarding surface features is stored for many minutes and that ease of initial encoding is inversely related to likelihood of subsequent recognition: sentences in the unfamiliar typography were remembered better.
Surface form and the spacing effect
It was assumed that memory for surface structure of sentences decays rapidly, and hence can contribute to initial identification of repetitions only at short spacings, and this prediction was supported.
Distributed rehearsals and the primacy effect in single-trial free recall.
Human Memory: Structures And Processes
The psychology of reading and language comprehension
Effects of review and testlike events within the learning of prose materials.
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Distributed rehearsals
  • 1987