The "Little Ice Age": Northern Hemisphere Average Observations and Model Calculations

  title={The "Little Ice Age": Northern Hemisphere Average Observations and Model Calculations},
  author={Alan Robock},
  pages={1402 - 1404}
  • A. Robock
  • Published 21 December 1979
  • Environmental Science, Physics
  • Science
Numerical energy balance climate model calculations of the average surface temperature of the Northern Hemisphere for the past 400 years are compared with a new reconstruction of the past climate. Forcing with volcanic dust produces the best simulation, whereas expressing the solar constant as a function of the envelope of the sunspot number gives very poor results. 

The mount st. Helens volcanic eruption of 18 may 1980: minimal climatic effect.

An energy-balance numerical climate model was used to simulate the effects of the Mount St. Helens volcanic eruption of 18 May 1980. The resulting surface temperature depression is a maximum of 0.1

Simulation of the influence of solar radiation variations on the global climate with an ocean-atmosphere general circulation model

Abstract. Two simulations with a global coupled ocean-atmosphere circulation model have been carried out to study the potential impact of solar variability on climate. The Hoyt and Schatten estimate

Modeling the temperature response to forced climate change over the last six centuries

Development of improved proxy estimates of climate forcing and temperature change over the past six centuries provides a new opportunity to examine the role of forced variability in the climate

Externally Forced and Internal Variability in Ensemble Climate Simulations of the Maunder Minimum

The response of the climate system to natural, external forcing during the Maunder Minimum (ca. A.D. 1645–1715) is investigated using a comprehensive climate model. An ensemble of six transient

The Little Ice Age as Recorded in the Stratigraphy of the Tropical Quelccaya Ice Cap

The analyses of two ice cores from a southern tropical ice cap provide a record of climatic conditions over 1000 years for a region where other proxy records are nearly absent and confirms the worldwide character of the Little Ice Age.

Volcanic forcing of climate over the past 1500 years: An improved ice core-based index for climate models

[1] Understanding natural causes of climate change is vital to evaluate the relative impacts of human pollution and land surface modification on climate. We have investigated one of the most

Global average climate forcing and temperature response since 1750

Estimates are made for the period since 1750 of the major radiative forcing factors thought to be important in climate change. Analysis of these emphasizes the role of biospheric CO2 release and

Stratospheric Control of Climate

Firm evidence for a connection between variations in solar radiation and climate has been elusive. In his Perspective, Robock discusses the results of Haigh, who reports in this same issue (p. 981)

Snow and ice feedbacks prolong effects of nuclear winter

  • A. Robock
  • Environmental Science, Physics
  • 1984
Recent studies using climate models1–6 have suggested that drastic surface cooling (the “nuclear winter”1) caused by smoke and dust would follow a large-scale nuclear war, with possible drastic



Volcanic Dust, Sunspots, and Temperature Trends

The extent to which two often proposed external causes of climatic change, volcanic dust and variations in the solar constant correlated with variable sunspot activity, might account for the general

Solar radiation and solar activity

Using high-altitude balloon soundings (1961 to 1968) and other data, it is shown that the most reliable maximum value of the solar constant is at present 1.94 cal cm−2 min−1, to an accuracy of 1 per

Climatic Change: Are We on the Brink of a Pronounced Global Warming?

If man-made dust is unimportant as a major cause of climatic change, then a strong case can be made that the present cooling trend will, within a decade or so, give way to a pronounced warming

Volcanic dust in the atmosphere; with a chronology and assessment of its meteorological significance

  • H. Lamb
  • Environmental Science
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences
  • 1970
After defining the terms commonly used in reporting volcanic eruptions and noting previous approaches to assessment of their magnitudes, this study proceeds to examine aspects of importance, or

Variations in sunspot structure and climate

  • D. Hoyt
  • Physics, Environmental Science
  • 1979
Sunspot structure is measured by taking the ratio of the area of the umbra to that of the penumbra. The time dependence of this umbral/penumbral ratio is remarkably similar to the record of the

Tree-ring-drought relationships in the hudson valley, new york.

Annual tree-ring chronologies from certain well-drained sites in the Hudson Valley of New York record past changes in temperature and precipitation. This information accounts for much of the July


Several years have elapsed since the most recent comprehensive studies of secular trends of global temperature were published. One such study of extraordinary interest is that of Willett (1950), who

The Maunder Minimum

In the years around a sunspot maximum there is seldom a day when a number of spots cannot be seen, and often hundreds are present.

Climate and the changing sun

Long-term changes in the level of solar activity are found in historical records and in fossil radiocarbon in tree-rings. Typical of these changes are the Maunder Minimum (A.D. 1645–1715), the Spörer