The "Arousal Effect": An Alternative Interpretation of the Mozart Effect

  title={The "Arousal Effect": An Alternative Interpretation of the Mozart Effect},
  author={Melecio Gonzalez and Glenn E. Smith and David W. Stockwell and Robert Horton},
Previous research suggests that listening to Mozart’s music enhances performance on subsequent tests of spatial ability. One explanation for this result is that Mozart’s music produces a positive arousal state that increases alertness and thus, enhances spatial performance. In this study, we sampled elementary students in order to investigate (1) the presence of the Mozart effect and (2) the possibility that the Mozart effect can be explained by increased levels of arousal. We assigned… 
Levels of Arousal in Positive Moods: Effects on Motor Performance
Background: The use of simple preparatory methods, such as listening to relaxing music, may decrease negative emotions and enhance performance. The purpose of this research was to explore whether


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Findings provide compelling evidence that the Mozart effect is an artifact of arousal and mood.
An Experimental Test of “The Mozart Effect”: Does Listening to His Music Improve Spatial Ability?
This experiment was designed as a test of the 1993 findings of Rauscher, Shaw, and Ky who reported a positive effect of listening to classical music on spatial reasoning. Present results do not
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The “Mozart effect” reported by Rauscher, Shaw, and Ky (1993, 1995) indicates that spatial-temporal abilities are enhanced after listening to music composed by Mozart. We replicated and extended the
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Although there was an increase in OTP for females, the effect of the intervention was inhibited by the ceiling effect, and the mean pretreatment OTB for females was 99%.
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The Mozart effect is the purported increase in spatial-reasoning performance immediately after exposure to a Mozart piano sonata. Several laboratories have been unable to confirm the existence of the
Listening to Mozart May Not Enhance Performance on the Revised Minnesota Paper Form Board Test
The present study was designed to replicate results of a 1993 study that found that listening to a Mozart sonata temporarily enhanced performance on the spatial reasoning task from the Stanford-Binet scale using the Revised Minnesota Paper Form Board Test.
Key Components of the Mozart Effect
A neurophysiological context for the enhancement of spatial-temporal reasoning following exposure to Mozart's Sonata for Two Pianos in D Major is provided and theoretical and experimental factors, including the choice of dependent measures, the presentation order of the conditions, and the selection of the musical composition are considered.
Prelude or requiem for the ‘Mozart effect’?
A meta-analysis is used to demonstrate that any cognitive enhancement is small and does not reflect any change in IQ or reasoning ability in general, but instead derives entirely from performance on one specific type of cognitive task and has a simple neuropsychological explanation.
Effect of Music on Spatial Performance: A Test of Generality
16 subjects showed reliable improvement on a paper-folding-and-cutting task after listening to Mozart's Sonata for Two Pianos in D major, as employed by others, and the enhanced performance was also noted for 16 other subjects after listens to a contemporary selection having similar musical characteristics.