The Pacific Meridional Mode over the last millennium

  title={The Pacific Meridional Mode over the last millennium},
  author={Sara C. Sanchez and Dillon J. Amaya and Arthur J. Miller and Shang‐ping Xie and Christopher D. Charles},
  journal={Climate Dynamics},
The Pacific Meridional Mode, a coupled ocean–atmospheric interaction responsible for propagating subtropical anomalies to the tropics via thermodynamic mechanisms, features prominently in discussions of the response of climate variability to climate change. However, it is presently unclear how and why the variance in PMM might change, or even if greenhouse gas forcing might lead to heightened activity. Here, PMM variance over the last millennium is assessed in the Community Earth System Model… 

The Pacific Meridional Mode and ENSO: a Review

  • D. Amaya
  • Environmental Science
    Current Climate Change Reports
  • 2019
This paper reviews recent progress in understanding of the North Pacific Meridional Mode (NPMM) and its influence on the timing, magnitude, flavor, and intensity of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation

Enhanced North Pacific impact on El Niño/Southern Oscillation under greenhouse warming

A majority of El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events are preceded by the North Pacific Meridional Mode (NPMM), a dominant coupled ocean–atmospheric mode of variability. How the precursory NPMM

The North Pacific Pacemaker Effect on Historical ENSO and Its Mechanisms

Studies have indicated that North Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) variability can significantly modulate El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO), but there has been little effort to put

Asymmetric impact of the boreal spring Pacific Meridional Mode on the following winter El Niño‐Southern Oscillation

A number of previous studies have indicated that boreal spring Pacific Meridional Mode (SPMM) can exert notable impacts on the occurrence of El Niño‐Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event during the



Meridional Modes and Increasing Pacific Decadal Variability Under Anthropogenic Forcing

Pacific decadal variability has strong impacts on the statistics of weather, atmosphere extremes, droughts, hurricanes, marine heatwaves, and marine ecosystems. Sea surface temperature (SST)

ENSO and meridional modes: A null hypothesis for Pacific climate variability

Pacific low‐frequency variability (timescale > 8 years) exhibits a well‐known El Niño‐like pattern of basin‐scale sea surface temperature, which is found in all the major modes of Pacific decadal

Equatorial signatures of the Pacific Meridional Modes: Dependence on mean climate state

Extratropical atmospheric variability can impact tropical climate in the Pacific sector via the Pacific Meridional Modes (PMMs). The South PMM (SPMM) has a larger equatorial signature than the North

The Pacific Meridional Mode and the Occurrence of Tropical Cyclones in the Western North Pacific

AbstractThis study investigates the association between the Pacific meridional mode (PMM) and tropical cyclone (TC) activity in the western North Pacific (WNP). It is found that the positive PMM

Factors that affect the amplitude of El Nino in global coupled climate models

Abstract Historically, El Nino-like events simulated in global coupled climate models have had reduced amplitude compared to observations. Here, El Nino-like phenomena are compared in ten sensitivity

Interdecadal interactions between the tropics and midlatitudes in the Pacific Basin

Analysis of global climate model simulations and observations suggest decadal, midlatitude changes in and over the North Pacific cause decadal modulation of the El Niño‐Southern Oscillation. This

Pacific meridional mode and El Niño—Southern Oscillation

We present intriguing evidence that the majority of El Niño events over the past four decades are preceded by a distinctive sea‐surface warming and southwesterly wind anomaly in the vicinity of the

Interdecadal Amplitude Modulation of El Niño–Southern Oscillation and Its Impact on Tropical Pacific Decadal Variability*

AbstractThe amplitude of El Nino–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) displays pronounced interdecadal modulations in observations. The mechanisms for the amplitude modulation are investigated using a 2000-yr

Midlatitude Excitation of Tropical Variability in the Pacific: The Role of Thermodynamic Coupling and Seasonality*

Abstract A set of ensemble model experiments using the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Atmospheric Model version 3.0 (CAM3) is run to investigate the tropical Pacific response to