According to the data from different screening studies, thalassemia is the most commonly seen hereditary hemolytic disease in China. The reported prevalence of thalassemia carriers varies but it is most prevalent in Southern China. In the past, the outcome of patients with thalassemia major has been very poor due to unfavorable economic background. With economic improvement in the past 10 years, increasing number of patients can get regular transfusion and chelation, and more patients can be treated by hemopoietic stem cell transplantation. A better prevention network has been built up over the years, but there are still babies being born with severe forms of thalassemia every year. A more comprehensive preventive program and public education are vital.