Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disorder that affects the joints. High-fat diet (HFD) is a risk factor for RA and is related to inflammation but responds minimally to medication. Given the association between HFD and inflammation, it is important to understand the function of inflammation-related T cells in RA with HFD. Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), a model of RA, was induced in HFD mice by injection of collagen II, and metabolic markers and T cells were analyzed. The metabolic index and IgG assay results were higher in HFD-CIA mice than in nonfat diet-CIA mice. Numbers of inflammation-related T cells and macrophages, such as Th1 and Th17 cells and M1 macrophages, were higher in spleens of HFD-CIA mice. HFD-CIA mice had a high level of α2-glycoprotein 1 (Azgp1), a soluble protein that stimulates lipolysis. To examine the association between Azgp1 and Th17 cells, the reciprocal effects of Azgp1 and IL-17 on Th17 differentiation and lipid metabolism were measured. Interestingly, Azgp1 increased the Th17 population of splenocytes. Taken together, our data suggest that the acceleration of fat loss caused by Azgp1 in RA with metabolic syndrome is related to the increase of IL-17. Mice injected with the Azgp1-overexpression vector exhibited more severe CIA compared with the mock vector-injected mice.