To compare children and adults in respect to the effect of H. pylori infection on the gastric concentrations of cytokines linked to innate and Th1 immune response, as well as to investigate the changes in the gastric concentrations of the studied cytokines according to the age. We studied 245 children (142 H. pylori-negative and 103 H. pylori-positive) and 140 adults (40 H. pylori-negative and 100 H. pylori-positive). The gastric concentrations of cytokines representative of the innate and Th1 response were higher in the H. pylori-positive than in the -negative children and adults. The gastric concentrations of IL-1α and TNF-α were significantly higher, while those of IL-2, IL-12p70 and IFN-γ were lower in the infected children than in the infected adults. In the infected children, the gastric concentration of IL-1α, IL-2, IL-12p70 and IFN-γ increased, whereas in adults, the gastric concentrations of IFN-γ and IL-12p70 decreased with the aging. Increased gastric concentration of Th1 associated cytokines correlated with increased degree of gastritis that is the background lesion for the development of the H. pylori associated severe diseases. Concluding, Th1 response to H. pylori infection varies according to the age and seems to have determinant implication in the H. pylori infection outcomes.