Tetrodotoxin and its analogue 6-epitetrodotoxin in newts (Triturus spp.; Urodela, Salamandridae) from southern Germany.

  title={Tetrodotoxin and its analogue 6-epitetrodotoxin in newts (Triturus spp.; Urodela, Salamandridae) from southern Germany.},
  author={Mari Yotsu-Yamashita and Dietrich Mebs and Axel Kwet and Michael Schneider},
  journal={Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology},
  volume={50 2},
Tissue distribution of tetrodotoxin in the red-spotted newt Notophthalmus viridescens.
Variability of tetrodotoxin and of its analogues in the red-spotted newt, Notophthalmus viridescens (Amphibia: Urodela: Salamandridae).
Isolation and Structural Determination of the First 8-epi-type Tetrodotoxin Analogs from the Newt, Cynops ensicauda popei, and Comparison of Tetrodotoxin Analogs Profiles of This Newt and the Puffer Fish, Fugu poecilonotus
Four new analogs of tetrodotoxin, 8-epi-5,6,11-trideoxyTTX, are found in a natural source from the newt and in the ovary of the puffer fish, Fugu poecilonotus, and their structures are determined using spectroscopic methods.
Isolation of 6-deoxytetrodotoxin from the pufferfish, Takifugu pardalis, and a comparison of the effects of the C-6 and C-11 hydroxy groups of tetrodotoxin on its activity.
The voltage-gated sodium channel blocking activity of 6-deoxyTTX is investigated by examination of the inhibitory activities to cytotoxicity induced by ouabain and veratridine in mouse neuroblastoma cells (Neuro-2a), and results suggested that contribution of the C-6 hydroxy group to the activity is less than that of theC-11 Hydroxy group.
The Chemical and Evolutionary Ecology of Tetrodotoxin (TTX) Toxicity in Terrestrial Vertebrates
  • C. Hanifin
  • Biology, Environmental Science
    Marine drugs
  • 2010
The taxonomic distribution and evolutionary ecology of TTX in amphibians is reviewed with some attention to the origin ofTTX present in these taxa.
The Incidence of Tetrodotoxin and Its Analogs in the Indian Ocean and the Red Sea
Assessment of the incidence of TTXs in seafood and associated seafood poisonings in the Indian Ocean and the Red Sea shows the need of data regarding TTX prevalence, geographical distribution, and its vectors in this area to better assess human health risk and build effective monitoring programs to protect the health of consumers in Indian Ocean area.
Tetrodotoxin: Chemistry, Toxicity, Source, Distribution and Detection
This review aims to collect pertinent information available to date on TTX and its analogues with a special emphasis on the structure, aetiology, distribution, effects and the analytical methods employed for its detection.
The praying mantis (Mantodea) as predator of the poisonous red-spotted newt Notophthalmus viridescens (Amphibia: Urodela: Salamandridae)
As demonstrated by monoclonal antibody-based immunohistochemical technique, TTX does not penetrate the mid-gut membrane, since it was localized only in the gut lumen, but not in the epithelial cells, and enables the mantids to feed on toxic prey without risking poisoning.


Distribution of tetrodotoxin, 6-epitetrodotoxin, and 11-deoxytetrodotoxin in newts.
The occurrence of tetrodotoxin (tarichatoxin) in amphibia and the distribution of the toxin in the organs of newts (taricha).
Chemical and Etiological Studies on Tetrodotoxin and Its Analogs
Bacteria were found to be the genetic origin of TT, and the occurrence of new TTX analogs in pufferfish, newts and a frog revealed valuable information on biosynthetic as well as metabolic pathways of TTX and on structure-activity relationship.
No evidence for an endosymbiotic bacterial origin of tetrodotoxin in the newt Taricha granulosa.
Tetrodotoxin-producing bacteria from the blue-ringed octopus Octopus maculosus
Several live specimens of the blue-ringed octopus Octopus maculosus were collected from the Philippines in November 1985, and from Japan in February 1986, and the distribution of toxicity, along with
Toxicity of Dangerous Prey: Variation of Tetrodotoxin Levels Within and Among Populations of the Newt Taricha granulosa
The defensive chemical trait of a prey species, the newt Taricha granulosa, thought to be part of a coevolutionary arms race is quantified.
Apparent lack of tetrodotoxin biosynthesis in captured Taricha torosa and Taricha granulosa.
Feed experiments were carried out using radioactive precursors on the newts Taricha torosa andTaricha granulosa to explore the origin of the potent neurotoxin tetrodotoxin, finding that they retained a high level of toxicity during their captivity, yet were found to continuously release small amounts of toxins.
Vibrio alginolyticus, a tetrodotoxin-producing bacterium, in the intestines of the fish Fugu vermicularis vermicularis
The findings suggest that some strains of V. alginolyticus are closely related to the toxification of the puffer, and probably of other species.