Tetrodotoxin alleviates acute heroin withdrawal syndrome: A multicentre, randomized, double‐blind, placebo‐controlled study

  title={Tetrodotoxin alleviates acute heroin withdrawal syndrome: A multicentre, randomized, double‐blind, placebo‐controlled study},
  author={Hui Song and Jing Li and Chang-li Lu and Lin Kang and Liang Xie and Yangyang Zhang and Xiaobo Zhou and Sheng Zhong},
  journal={Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology},
  • Hui SongJing Li Sheng Zhong
  • Published 1 August 2011
  • Medicine, Psychology
  • Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology
1. Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a powerful sodium channel blocker extracted from the puffer fish. The efficacy and safety of TTX as monotherapy for the treatment of acute heroin withdrawal syndrome were evaluated in the present study. This 7‐day, multicentre, randomized, double‐blind, placebo‐controlled study was carried out between December 2008 and October 2009. In total, 216 patients who met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV diagnosis of heroin addiction were recruited… 

Addressing the Issue of Tetrodotoxin Targeting

A significant improvement in the effectiveness of the toxin was demonstrated when used in tandem with vasoconstrictors, local anesthetics and chemical permeation enhancers, with the best results obtained with the encapsulation of TTX in microparticles and liposomes conjugated to gold nanorods.

Tetrodotoxin, a Potential Drug for Neuropathic and Cancer Pain Relief?

Preclinical and clinical evidence support a potential analgesic role for TTX in these pain states and the main toxic effects that this neurotoxin produces when it is administered at therapeutic doses, and the therapeutic potential to alleviate neuropathic pain of other natural toxins that selectively block TTX-sensitive VGSCs.

From Poison to Promise: The Evolution of Tetrodotoxin and Its Potential as a Therapeutic

The perplexing evolution and ecology of tetrodotoxin is described, its mechanisms and modes of action are reviewed, and an overview of the numerous ways it may be applied as a therapeutic is offered.

Antihyperalgesic effect of tetrodotoxin in rat models of persistent muscle pain

Tetrodotoxin, an Extremely Potent Marine Neurotoxin: Distribution, Toxicity, Origin and Therapeutical Uses

This neurotoxin has spread to the Pacific and Mediterranean, due to the increase of temperature waters worldwide, and could be used in the medical field as an analgesic to treat some cancer pains.

An overview on the origin and production of tetrodotoxin, a potent neurotoxin

The possible facets for engineering the bacterial genomics to modulate the gene expression for TTX production are outlined and the primary focus is on its exogenous origin.

Tetrodotoxin: History, Biology, and Synthesis.

The history of this remarkable molecule all the way back to the ancient Chinese medicine records is traced, and the discovery of biological activity, isolation, and a brief overview of structure elucidation are summarized.

The Influence of Tetrodotoxin (TTX) on the Distribution and Chemical Coding of Caudal Mesenteric Ganglion (CaMG) Neurons Supplying the Porcine Urinary Bladder

The present study is the first to suggest that TTX modifies the chemical coding of CaMG neurons supplying the porcine urinary bladder after intravesical instillation of tetrodotoxin (TTX).


One of the most potent non-narcotic analgesics (PNS neurons sodium channel blocker) - Tetrodotoxin (TTX) was recognized as the most promising and currently FSUE «GosZMP» conducting preclinical studies of injectable preparation of TTX.



Tetrodotoxin for moderate to severe cancer pain: a randomized, double blind, parallel design multicenter study.

Tetrodotoxin reduces cue-induced drug craving and anxiety in abstinent heroin addicts

The clinical use of clonidine in abrupt withdrawal from methadone. Effects on blood pressure and specific signs and symptoms.

The withdrawal symptoms of anxiety, restlessness, insomnia, and muscular aching were most resistant to clonidine treatment and were reported by the majority of patients.

Tai-Kang-Ning, a Chinese Herbal Medicine Formula, Alleviates Acute Heroin Withdrawal

TKN is effective in the treatment of moderate-to-severe acute heroin withdrawal syndrome with mild adverse effects and there was no significant difference overall between lofexidine and TKN in efficacy or safety.

An open-label, multi-dose efficacy and safety study of intramuscular tetrodotoxin in patients with severe cancer-related pain.

Effects of tetrodotoxin on naloxone-precipitated withdrawal syndrome in morphine-dependent rats and mice

  • C. Su
  • Biology, Chemistry
  • 2001
TTX significantly inhibited the withdrawal syndrome evoked by Nal in morphine dependent rats and mice, and its effects were similar to that of clonidine.

Clonidine in morphine withdrawal. Differential effects on signs and symptoms.

Compared with morphine, clonidine was more effective in suppressing autonomic signs of abstinence but less effective in reducing subject-reported symptoms and discomfort, and it is concluded that the perception of the clinical usefulness ofClonidine depends on whether objective measures or subjects' reports are treated.

Effect of morphine and abstinence syndrome on [3H]bromoxidine binding to α2-adrenoreceptors in rat brain

It is concluded that there exist brain regional differences in the α2-adrenoreceptors response under morphine-treatment and possibly under naloxone-induced morphine abstinence syndrome.


Tetrodotoxin (TTX) intoxication resulting from the ingestion of toxic puffer is relatively common in a number of Asian countries and the onset of symptoms is rapid.