Tetrodotoxin Levels in Eggs of the Rough-Skin Newt, Taricha granulosa, Are Correlated with Female Toxicity

@article{Hanifin2004TetrodotoxinLI,
  title={Tetrodotoxin Levels in Eggs of the Rough-Skin Newt, Taricha granulosa, Are Correlated with Female Toxicity},
  author={Charles T Hanifin and Edmund D. Brodie and Edmund D. Brodie},
  journal={Journal of Chemical Ecology},
  year={2004},
  volume={29},
  pages={1729-1739}
}
We quantified the amount of the neurotoxin tetrodotoxin (TTX) present in females and newly deposited eggs of the rough-skin newt, Taricha granulosa, to examine the relationship between the toxicity of an individual female and the toxicity of her eggs. We found high levels of TTX in individual eggs as well as substantial variation among clutches. Variation in the amount of TTX per egg within individual clutches was extremely low. Female skin toxicity was positively correlated with the mean egg… 
Female newts (Taricha granulosa) produce tetrodotoxin laden eggs after long term captivity.
TLDR
The results, coupled with other long-term studies on the maintenance and regeneration of TTX in the skin, suggests an endogenous origin ofTTX in newts, which is similar to the quantity that regenerated in theSkin after electrical stimulation.
Tetrodotoxin concentrations within a clutch and across embryonic development in eggs of the rough-skinned newts (Taricha granulosa).
TLDR
It was found that the amount of TTX in newt eggs depended on the relative "position" of the egg within a clutch; eggs deposited at the beginning of the clutch had substantially more TTX than those at the end.
Tetrodotoxin levels in larval and metamorphosed newts (Taricha granulosa) and palatability to predatory dragonflies.
TLDR
Results suggest that despite previous assumptions, substantial quantities of TTX, originally deposited in the embryo, are retained by the developing larvae and metamorphosed juveniles and this quantity is enough to make them unpalatable to some potential predators.
' s personal copy Tetrodotoxin levels in larval and metamorphosed newts ( Taricha granulosa ) and palatability to predatory dragon fl ies
Some populations of the newt Taricha granulosa possess extremely high concentrations of the neurotoxin tetrodotoxin (TTX). Tetrodotoxin is present in adult newts and their eggs, but has been assumed
Levels and distribution of tetrodotoxin in the blue-lined octopus Hapalochlaena fasciata in Japan, with special reference to within-body allocation
TLDR
A strong positive correlation between TTX concentrations in the posterior salivary gland and TTX concentration in muscles and skin is found, which suggests that the allocation ratio may not result from a plastic allocation, reflecting the TTX needs of each organ or the amount of available TTX, but rather may, at least partly, be evolutionarily fixed.
Predatory Caddisfly Larvae Sequester Tetrodotoxin from Their Prey, Eggs of the Rough-Skinned Newt (Taricha granulosa)
TLDR
Caddisfly larvae that were frozen immediately after collecting in the wild possessed TTX, and wild-caught larvae reared on a TTX-free diet in the laboratory retained TTX for up to 134 days, through metamorphosis and into the adult stage.
Survival and growth of the caddisfly Limnephilus flavastellus after predation on toxic eggs of the Rough-skinned Newt (Taricha granulosa)
TLDR
It is suggested that caddisflies are important predators of eggs of T. granulosa, and the pro- pensity of egg predation and its effect on growth of the only known predator of newt eggs, caddisfly larvae are examined.
Role of maternal tetrodotoxin in survival of larval pufferfish
TLDR
Results indicate that larvae, which are at the most vulnerable stage in the life of pufferfish, are protected by maternal TTX, which is an extremely potent neurotoxin detected in various taxa.
A predictive model to estimate total skin tetrodotoxin in the newt Taricha granulosa.
We developed a predictive model to estimate the total amount of tetrodotoxin (TTX) in the skin of individual newts (Taricha granulosa) based on measures of the amount of TTX present in dorsal skin.
Ontogeny of Tetrodotoxin Levels in Blue-ringed Octopuses: Maternal Investment and Apparent Independent Production in Offspring of Hapalochlaena lunulata
TLDR
The maternal investment of TTX in offspring of Hapalochlaena spp.
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