Tetrodotoxin-Bupivacaine-Epinephrine Combinations for Prolonged Local Anesthesia

@inproceedings{Berde2011TetrodotoxinBupivacaineEpinephrineCF,
  title={Tetrodotoxin-Bupivacaine-Epinephrine Combinations for Prolonged Local Anesthesia},
  author={Charles B. Berde and Umeshkumar Athiraman and Barak Yahalom and David Zurakowski and Gabriel Corfas and Christina Bognet},
  booktitle={Marine drugs},
  year={2011}
}
Currently available local anesthetics have analgesic durations in humans generally less than 12 hours. Prolonged-duration local anesthetics will be useful for postoperative analgesia. Previous studies showed that in rats, combinations of tetrodotoxin (TTX) with bupivacaine had supra-additive effects on sciatic block durations. In those studies, epinephrine combined with TTX prolonged blocks more than 10-fold, while reducing systemic toxicity. TTX, formulated as Tectin, is in phase III clinical… CONTINUE READING

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