Tetramethylammonium hydroxide poisoning

  title={Tetramethylammonium hydroxide poisoning},
  author={Chun-Chi Lin and Chen-Chang Yang and Jiin Ger and Jou‐Fang Deng and Dong-Zong Hung},
  journal={Clinical Toxicology},
  pages={213 - 217}
Introduction. Tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) is widely used as a developer or etchant in semiconductor and photoelectric industries. In addition to alkalinity-related chemical burn, dermal exposure to TMAH may also result in respiratory failure and/or sudden death. The latter toxic effect has been of great concern in Taiwan after the occurrence of three fatalities in recent years. To better understand the toxicity following dermal exposure to TMAH, we analyzed all cases with TMAH exposure… 
Presentations of tetramethylammonium hydroxide dermal exposure and the valuable potential of diphoterine solution in decontamination: a retrospective observational study
TMAH acts as an alkaline corrosive and cholinergic agonist and an amphoteric solution may be efficacious for skin decontamination on-site immediately to prevent or ameliorate such toxicity.
The role of the chemical burns caused by hydroxide ion in the toxicity of dermal exposure to tetramethylammonium ion in a rat model.
Electrodialysis Process for the Recycling and Concentrating of Tetramethylammonium Hydroxide (TMAH) from Photoresist Developer Wastewater
A large amount of developer wastewater containing tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) is discharged from semiconductors and photoelectric industries. The electrodialysis technique was employed for
Aerobic Treatment of Waste Process Solutions from the Semiconductor Industry: From Lab to Pilot Scale
Tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) is widely used as a solvent in the semiconductor industry. After the photo-impression process, it is necessary to remove the photoresist (PR) layer from the
Assessment of an MnCe-GAC Treatment Process for Tetramethylammonium-Contaminated Wastewater from Optoelectronic Industries
Nitrogen-containing wastewater is an important issue in optoelectronic and semiconductor industries. Wastewater containing nitrogen compounds such as ammonium, monoethanolamine (MEA), and


Mortality from Dermal Exposure to Tetramethylammonium Hydroxide
A 22-yr-old male engineer was accidentally drenched with concentrated TMAH solution while conducting routine examination of the pipe system in a plant manufacturing thin film transistor liquid crystaldisplays (TFT-LCDs).
Percutaneous penetration through slightly damaged skin
  • J. Nielsen
  • Medicine
    Archives of Dermatological Research
  • 2005
It is concluded that a slightly damaged skin may significantly affect the rate, lag-time as well as total penetration of chemicals covering a wide range of solubilities and the percutaneous penetration of the most hydrophilic compounds will be those most affected.
Structure-pharmacokinetics relationship of quaternary ammonium compounds
Elimination patterns for organic cations of various structure differ much more than their overall distribution characteristics, indicating involvement of active renal transport processes.
Tetramethylammonium is a muscarinic agonist in rat heart.
Results suggest that extracellular TMA can alter the function of rat heart by stimulating muscarinic receptors, and should be considered when using this quaternary amine as a cation substitute.
The toxic principle of Courbonia virgata; its isolation and identification as a tetramethylammonium salt.
  • A. Henry
  • Chemistry
    British journal of pharmacology and chemotherapy
  • 1948
A tuberous root submitted for examination In conformity with the results obtained on the from the Southern Sudan as having been concerned original root extract, it was shown that the base is in the
Internal block of human heart sodium channels by symmetrical tetra- alkylammoniums
The data suggest that TMA, TEA, and TPrA bind to a common site deep within the pore and block ion transport by a fast-block mechanism without affecting either activation or inactivation.
Mechanisms involved in ganglionic blockade induced by tetramethylammonium.
The findings with ouabain suggest that the late block and hyperpolarization produced by TMA were caused by a mechanism similar to that responsible for the positive afterpotential following the ganglionic spike.
Structure-pharmacokinetics relationship of quaternary ammonium compounds
  • C. NeefD. Meijer
  • Biology, Medicine
    Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
  • 2004
The resulting intrinsic clearance values indicate that membrane transport in the liver and intestine but not in the kidneys will tend to increase with the lipophilicity of the organic cation.
Agonist and blocking actions of choline and tetramethylammonium on human muscle acetylcholine receptors
This work proposes that choline, like TMA, is a partial agonist because it is very ineffective at eliciting the initial, pre‐opening conformation change, and suggests that channel block is very fast and that the channel can shut almost as fast as normal when the blocker was bound.
The abbreviated burn severity index.