Tetrahydrozoline (Visine®) concentrations in serum and urine during therapeutic ocular dosing: A necessary first step in determining an overdose

  title={Tetrahydrozoline (Visine{\textregistered}) concentrations in serum and urine during therapeutic ocular dosing: A necessary first step in determining an overdose},
  author={Mary E. Carr and Kristin M. Engebretsen and Benjamin Wen Yang Ho and Christopher P. Anderson},
  journal={Clinical Toxicology},
  pages={810 - 814}
Introduction. No information exists on therapeutic or toxic concentrations of tetrahydrozoline, which has been reported to be used in drug facilitated sexual assaults. The primary aim of this investigation was to establish baseline therapeutic serum and urine concentrations in a sample of healthy volunteers. Methods. Ten healthy volunteers consented to have two drops of Original Visine® eye drops (0.05% tetrahydrozoline solution) placed directly into the conjunctival sac of each eye, 30 s apart… 
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Use of tetrahydrozoline for chemical submission.

Significance of the imidazoline receptors in toxicology

Interactions and mechanisms by which agonists affect physiologic responses binding to imidazoline receptors may lead to new therapeutic agents and inform management of patients with imdazoline overdose, according to a review of studies published in English from 1960 to 2013.

An electrochemical sensing platform to determine tetrahydrozoline HCl in pure form, pharmaceutical formulation, and rabbit aqueous humor.

This work proposed a link between the pharmaceutical industry and the recent innovations in solid-contact ion-selective electrodes (SC-ISEs) for the utilization of these electrodes as real-time analyzers to evaluate the concentration of tetrahydrozoline HCl in different matrices.

Unintentional Pediatric Ophthalmic Tetrahydrozoline Ingestion: Case Files of the Medical Toxicology Fellowship at the University of California, San Francisco

Initial ECG done 3 h after ED arrival showed bradycardia with first-degree heart block and there was no response to 1 mg IV naloxone.



Determination of tetrahydrozoline in urine and blood using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

Tetrahydrozoline, a derivative of imidazoline, is widely used for the symptomatic relief of conjunctival and nasal congestion; however, intentional or unintentional high doses can result in toxicity

Serum concentrations in three children with unintentional tetrahydrozoline overdose

Three pediatric cases after ingestion of THZ are reported where plasma concentrations were obtained with a calculated half-life of 4.4 h in one case, and human PK data are not available to help in the understanding of THz toxicokinetics and disposition in humans after ingestion.

Hemodynamic effects following ingestion of an imidazoline‐containing product

A case of tetrahydrozoline ingestion in which, paradoxically, lethargy, bradycardia, and hypotension were noted is reported.

Drug-facilitated sexual assault

The contribution of alcohol and other drugs to sexual assault has been increasingly recognized during the last 15–20 years. This phenomenon has various names, including drug-facilitated sexual

Serum concentration in three children with unin-6. tended tetrahydrozoline overdose

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