Tetraether-linked membrane monolayers in Ferroplasma spp: a key to survival in acid

@article{Macalady2004TetraetherlinkedMM,
  title={Tetraether-linked membrane monolayers in Ferroplasma spp: a key to survival in acid},
  author={Jennifer L. Macalady and Martha M Vestling and David J. Baumler and Nicholas Boekelheide and Charles W. Kaspar and Jillian F. Banfield},
  journal={Extremophiles},
  year={2004},
  volume={8},
  pages={411-419}
}
Ferroplasma acidarmanus thrives in hot, extremely low pH, metal-rich solutions associated with dissolving metal sulfide ore deposits. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and thin layer chromatography analyses of F. acidarmanus membranes indicate that tetraether lipids predominate, with at least three core lipid structures. NMR measurements indicate that the cytoplasmic pH of F. acidarmanus is ~5.6. The optimal growth pH is ~1.2, and the lowest growth pH… 
The distribution and abundance of archaeal tetraether lipids in U.S. Great Basin hot springs
TLDR
High lipid concentrations, distinct lipid profiles, and a strong relationship between polar and core lipids in hot spring samples suggested in situ production of most iGDGTs rather than contamination from local soils, which suggests a wide distribution for thermophilic ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA).
The 'pH optimum anomaly' of intracellular enzymes of Ferroplasma acidiphilum.
TLDR
'pH optimum anomaly' suggests the existence of yet-undetected cellular compartmentalization providing cytoplasmic pH patchiness and low pH environments for the enzymes the authors have analysed.
The Role of Tetraether Lipid Composition in the Adaptation of Thermophilic Archaea to Acidity
TLDR
The data suggest that the ability to adjust the composition of GDGT lipid membranes played a central role in the diversification of archaea into or out of environments characterized by extremes of low pH and high temperature.
Energy flux controls tetraether lipid cyclization in Sulfolobus acidocaldarius
TLDR
It is demonstrated that membrane lipids change as a function of energy flux using a well-studied archaeon that thrives in acidic hot springs and observe an increase in membrane packing as energy becomes more limited.
Biosynthesis of archaeal membrane ether lipids
TLDR
This review describes the current knowledge of the biosynthetic pathway of archaeal ether lipids; insights on the stability and robustness of Archaeal lipid membranes; and evolutionary aspects of the lipid divide and the LUCA and examines recent advances made in the field of pathway reconstruction in bacteria.
Acidophiles: Mechanisms To Tolerate Metal and Acid Toxicity
TLDR
The mechanisms characterized to date are very similar to those found in organisms that grow at neutral pH, and their genes are often found to be located on either plasmids or transposons that would facilitate their spread by interspecies gene transfer.
Structural and physicochemical properties of polar lipids from thermophilic archaea
TLDR
This microreview focuses primarily on structural and physicochemical properties of polar lipids of (hyper)thermophilic archaea.
Ferroplasma and relatives, recently discovered cell wall-lacking archaea making a living in extremely acid, heavy metal-rich environments.
For several decades, the bacterium Acidithiobacillus (previously Thiobacillus) has been considered to be the principal acidophilic sulfur- and iron-oxidizing microbe inhabiting acidic environments
Functionalized Membrane Domains: An Ancestral Feature of Archaea?
TLDR
It is shown that almost all archaea also have the ability to synthesize di- and tetraether lipids, which supports the view that functionalized membrane domains may be shared between all Archaea.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 75 REFERENCES
[52] Lipids of Thermoplasma
Lipids of Thermococcus hydrothermalis, an archaea isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent
TLDR
Analysis of the uninoculated culture medium indicates that fatty acid derivatives and some steroid and triterpenoid compounds identified in the lipidic extract of the archaea originated from the culture medium.
Novel, acid-labile, hydroxydiether lipid cores in methanogenic bacteria.
Molecular modeling of archaebacterial bipolar tetraether lipid membranes.
Analysis of intact tetraether lipids in archaeal cell material and sediments by high performance liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry.
A method combining normal phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with positive ion atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (APCI-MS) was developed for the analysis of
Pyrobaculum aerophilum sp. nov., a novel nitrate-reducing hyperthermophilic archaeum
A novel rod-shaped hyperthermophilic archaeum has been isolated from a boiling marine water hole at Maronti Beach, Ischia, Italy. It grew optimally at 100 degrees C and pH 7.0 by aerobic respiration
The essence of being extremophilic: the role of the unique archaeal membrane lipids
TLDR
It is shown that thermophilic and extreme acidophilic Archaea possess membrane-spanning tetraether lipids that form a rigid monolayer membrane which is nearly impermeable to ions and protons, making the archaeal lipid membranes more suitable for life and survival in extreme environments than the ester-type bilayer lipids of Bacteria or Eukarya.
Structural analysis by reductive cleavage with LiAlH4 of an allyl ether choline-phospholipid, archaetidylcholine, from the hyperthermophilic methanoarchaeon Methanopyrus kandleri.
TLDR
The validity of the LiAlH4 method for the structural analysis of allyl ether phospholipid in archaea was confirmed in a study of the model compound synthetic unsaturated archaetidic acid (2,3-di-O-geranylgeranyl-sn-glycerol-1-phosphate).
Phenotypic Features of Ferroplasma acidiphilum Strains YT and Y-2
TLDR
It was established that the intraspecies phylogenetic divergence within F. acidiphilum is manifested in the two strains by different temperature optima against a background of similarity in other phenotypic properties.
...
...