Testosterone triggers growth of brain vocal control nuclei in adult female canaries

  title={Testosterone triggers growth of brain vocal control nuclei in adult female canaries},
  author={F. Nottebohm},
  journal={Brain Research},
  • F. Nottebohm
  • Published 1980
  • Medicine, Psychology
  • Brain Research
Two vocal control nuclei of the canary telencephalon, hyperstriatum ventrale, pars caudale (HVc) and nucleus robustus archistriatalis (RA), are larger in males, that learn complex songs, than in females, that normally do not sing. HVc and RA can be induced to grow by 90% and 53%, respectively, in adult gonadectomized females under the influence of testosterone, as these birds acquire male-like song. The magnitude of this effect is comparable, though of reversed sign, to that following early… Expand
Testosterone-induced changes in adult canary brain are reversible.
Brain nuclei that control song are larger in male canaries, which sing, than in females, which sing rarely or not at all. Treatment of adult female canaries with testosterone (T) induces songExpand
A brain for all seasons: cyclical anatomical changes in song control nuclei of the canary brain.
Male canaries that have reached sexual maturity can, in subsequent years, learn new song repertoires and two telencephalic song control nuclei are hypothesized to reflect an increase and then reduction in numbers of synapses and are related to the yearly ability to acquire new motor coordinations. Expand
Testosterone-dependent increase of gap-junctions in HVC neurons of adult female canaries
Electric coupling of HVC neurons could be important for the testosterone-dependent changes of the song pattern of canaries. Expand
Early estrogen treatment of female zebra finches masculinizes the brain pathway for learned vocalizations.
The results demonstrate that the neural masculinization of telencephalic nuclei induced by E2 treatment sets up a functional circuit in females similar to one in males that enables the learning and production of complex vocalizations. Expand
Testosterone and the incidence of hormone target cells in song-control nuclei of adult canaries.
No tendency was observed for testosterone-induced growth of HVc to be attenuated in deafened birds, and the incidence of hormone target cells in medial MAN (mMAN) did vary as a function of hormonal condition, which suggests a possible role for mMAN in learned song behavior. Expand
Joint hormonal and sensory stimulation modulate neuronal number in adult canary brains.
The results demonstrate that the number of neurons in a specific vocal-control nucleus (HVc) can change dramatically in adult canaries and suggest that some synergistic action of hormonal and sensory stimulation is necessary to induce such a change. Expand
Auditory and hormonal stimulation interact to produce neural growth in adult canaries.
It is reported here that testosterone administration increases the volume of HVc in hearing adult female canaries only and is greatly attenuated in birds that are deprived of auditory stimulation via deafening, suggesting that testosterone and sensory stimulation can act synergistically to produce structural plasticity in the adult brain. Expand
Testosterone‐dependent plasticity of avian forebrain neurons is not restricted to the song control system
It is suggested that the mechanism of spine density control by hormones may have arisen because of energy demands. Expand
Behavioral correlates of sexual differentiation in the zebra finch song system
The capacity for song is masculinized in female zebra finches by exposure to 17 beta-estradiol at hatching, and requires continual exposure to androgen for its behavioral expression in the adult. TheExpand
Steroid accumulation in song nuclei of a sexually dimorphic duetting bird, the rufous and white wren.
Comparisons with measures of hormone accumulation in zebra finches, canaries, and bay wrens supports the hypothesis presented that the relative proportion of neurons that are hormone sensitive in avian song control nuclei is related to the basic motor ability to sing, whereas the absolute number of such neurons isrelated to the complexity of song behavior. Expand


Sexual dimorphism in vocal control areas of the songbird brain.
In canaries and zebra finches, three vocal control areas in the brain are strikingly larger in males than in females, believed to be the first report of such gross sexual dimorphism in a vertebrate brain. Expand
Sexual Difference in Pattern of Hormone Accumulation in the Brain of a Songbird
After adult zebra finches (Poephila guttata) received injections of tritiated testosterone, fewer hormone-concentrating cells were found in females than in males in two brain regions involved inExpand
Hormone concentrating cells in vocal control and other areas of the brain of the zebra finch (Poephila guttata)
Using the autoradiographic method in the zebra finch (Poephila guttata), areas of the brain were identified which contain cells which accumulate testosterone or its metabolites after intramuscularExpand
Central control of song in the canary, Serinus canarius
Central nervous pathways controlling bird son in the canary are traced using a combination of behavioral and anatomical techniques and direct connections were found onto the cells of the motor nucleus innervating the syrinx, the organ of song production. Expand
The telencephalon, diencephalon, and mesencephalon of the canary, Serinus canaria, in stereotaxic coordinates
A stereotaxic atlas of the telencephalon, diencephalon and mesencephalon of the canary, Serinus canaria, was prepared for use in anatomical and behavioral experiments. Canaries have a complex vocalExpand
Induction of Singing in Female Canaries by Injections of Male Hormone.∗
Male hormone was injected into female birds to determine if this behavior is conditioned by secretions of the testis, and in 4 out of 5 birds, the typical male song was sung by the injected females. Expand
Gonadal Hormones and Brain Development: Cellular Aspects of Sexual Differentiation
Results suggest that since afferent axonal input and temporal factors are critical for dendritic and synaptic differentiation, steroid-induced variations in neuritic development could result in gender-specific responses seen in sexual differentiation of reproductive function. Expand
Evidence for a morphological sex difference within the medial preoptic area of the rat brain
The present report demonstrates the existence of a marked sexual difference in the volume of an intensely staining cellular component of the medial preoptic nucleus (MPON) of the rat and shows a possible morphological basis for the sexual differentiation of brain function. Expand
Perinatal effects of sex steroids on brain development and function.
  • R. Gorski
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Progress in brain research
  • 1973
The concept that the perinatal steroid environment determines sexual differences in neuroendocrine function is reviewed both with respect to the control of pituitary activity and of female sexual behavior. Expand
Androgen affects cholinergic enzymes in syringeal motor neurons and muscle
One mechanism for T regulation of singing in passerine birds is through induction of specific enzymatic proteins in androgen target neurons and muscles, and an androgenic effect also operates in addition. Expand