Testosterone elevation and response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone challenge by male Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) following aggressive behavior

@article{DeVries2012TestosteroneEA,
  title={Testosterone elevation and response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone challenge by male Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) following aggressive behavior},
  author={M. Susan DeVries and Caitlin P. Winters and Jodie M. Jawor},
  journal={Hormones and Behavior},
  year={2012},
  volume={62},
  pages={99-105}
}
Testosterone production in non-breeding Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis): is temperature influential?
TLDR
It is suggested that broader environmental patterns and additional cues may be influential to breeding in cardinals as opposed to only immediate temperature changes.
Examining the Role of Testosterone in Mediating Short-Term Aggressive Responses to Social Stimuli in a Lizard
TLDR
Investigating the activational relationship between testosterone and aggression in male Egernia whitii found that at the mean level, plasma T concentration did not appear to be influenced by an aggression challenge, but there was a slight indication that receiving a challenge may influence intra-individual consistency of plasma T concentrations.
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References

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TESTOSTERONE IN NORTHERN CARDINALS (CARDINALIS CARDINALIS): POSSIBLE INFLUENCE OF PROLONGED TERRITORIAL BEHAVIOR
  • J. Jawor
  • Environmental Science, Biology
  • 2007
TLDR
This work describes the year-round T profile of male and female Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis), a temperate-zone species with prolonged territorial behavior (7+ months), and finds relatively high levels of T observed in female Northern Cards throughout the year, and measurable amounts of T in both sexes in the winter.
Changes in plasma levels of testosterone during male-male interactions in the song sparrow, Melospiza melodia: time course and specificity of response
TLDR
Investigations of captive birds confirmed that circulating LH and T levels increased when male song sparrows were challenged by a conspecific male, suggesting that the initial surge of T levels in plasma may be LH independent.
Ignoring the challenge? Male black redstarts (Phoenicurus ochruros) do not increase testosterone levels during territorial conflicts but they do so in response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone
TLDR
The data show, for the first time, that the absence of an androgen response to male–male challenges is not owing to physiological limitations to increase testosterone.
Sex Hormones in the Song Wren: Variation with Time of Year, Molt, Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone, and Social Challenge
TLDR
Low basal testosterone levels in males and the failure of males to respond to GnRH or social challenge with an increase in testosterone indicates either a limited role for systemic testosterone or a system highly sensitive to small changes in hormone titers.
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