Testosterone during pregnancy and gender role behavior of preschool children: a longitudinal, population study.

@article{Hines2002TestosteroneDP,
  title={Testosterone during pregnancy and gender role behavior of preschool children: a longitudinal, population study.},
  author={Melissa Hines and Susan Golombok and John Rust and Katie J. Johnston and Jean Golding},
  journal={Child development},
  year={2002},
  volume={73 6},
  pages={
          1678-87
        }
}
Levels of testosterone (T) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were measured in blood samples from pregnant women and related to gender role behavior in 342 male and 337 female offspring at the age of 3.5 years. Gender role behavior was assessed using the Pre-School Activities Inventory, a standardized measure on which a parent indicates the child's involvement with sex-typical toys, games, and activities. Levels of T, but not SHBG, related linearly to gender role behavior in preschool… 

Tables from this paper

Prenatal sex hormones and behavioral outcomes in children

TLDR
Associations between testosterone and internalizing behaviors and behavioral symptoms index in both sexes are observed, as well as a female-specific association between E1 and adaptive skills.

Prenatal Sex Hormones (Maternal and Amniotic Fluid) and Gender-related Play Behavior in 13-month-old Infants

TLDR
It is suggested that a hormonal basis for the development of sex-typed toy preferences may manifest itself only after toddlerhood and the effect size of this relationship is so small that it should be investigated with more sensitive measures or in larger populations.

Umbilical Cord Blood Testosterone and Childhood Internalizing and Externalizing Behavior: A Prospective Study

TLDR
Higher umbilical cord BioT levels were associated with lower scores for attention problems in boys up to 10 years and more withdrawn behavior in 5-year-old girls; however, these findings were not consistent across ages and require further investigation in a larger sample.

Early-Life Soy Exposure and Gender-Role Play Behavior in Children

TLDR
Although not consistent throughout childhood, early-life soy exposure was associated with less female-typical play behavior in girls at 42 months of age, compared with non-soy-based infant feeding methods.

Gendered Behavior Across the Life Span

TLDR
Evidence is reviewed as to how various factors contribute to a range of specific behaviors that differ on average for males and females across the life span, including toy and activity preferences; core gender identity; sexual orientation; verbal, mathematical, and spatial abilities; and aggression and empathy.

Childhood Gender-Typed Behavior and Adolescent Sexual Orientation: A Longitudinal Population-Based Study

TLDR
Results suggest that the factors contributing to the link between childhood gender-typed behavior and sexual orientation emerge during early development, and some of those factors are likely to be nonsocial, because nonheterosexual individuals appear to diverge from gender norms regardless of social encouragement to conform to gender roles.

Developmental trajectories of sex-typed behavior in boys and girls: a longitudinal general population study of children aged 2.5-8 years.

TLDR
Investigation involved a general population sample of 2,726 boys and 2,775 girls and found that sex-typed behavior increased through the preschool years, and those children who were the most sex typed at age 2.5 were still the most Sex typed atage 5.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 68 REFERENCES

Androgens and gender role behaviour in girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH).

  • F. Slijper
  • Biology, Psychology
    Progress in brain research
  • 1984

The Heritability of Testosterone: A Study of Dutch Adolescent Twins and Their Parents

TLDR
The heritability of total plasma testosterone levels, determined from blood samples, was examined in 160 adolescent twin pairs and their parents and the lack of father–son resemblance suggests that different genetic factors may be expressed in adolescence and adulthood.

Neonatal sex-steroid hormones and cognitive abilities at six years.

TLDR
Multiple regression analyses revealed a significant proportion of the variance in cognitive abilities in girls could be accounted for by testosterone and androstenedione, and the finding of a stable inverse association between sex and effect of hormones on abilities is discussed.

Prenatal exposure to female hormones. Effect on psychosexual development in boys.

Two groups of boys exposed prenatally to exogenously administered estrogen and progesterone were studied on several parameters of psychosexual development. Subjects were twenty 6-year-olds and twenty

Maternal testosterone and fetal sex

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia I: Gender-related behavior and attitudes in female patients and sisters

Changes in maternal serum total and free androgen levels in early pregnancy: lack of correlation with fetal sex.

  • A. GlassT. Klein
  • Medicine, Biology
    American journal of obstetrics and gynecology
  • 1981

Prenatal ‘female hormone’ administration and psychosexual development in human males

ALSPAC--the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. I. Study methodology.

TLDR
The comprehensiveness of the ALSPAC approach with a total population sample unselected by disease status, and the availability of parental genotypes, provides an adequate sample for statistical analysis and for avoiding spurious results.
...