Testosterone and year-round territorial aggression in a tropical bird.

Testosterone (T) regulates avian behaviors such as song and aggression during the breeding season. However, the role of T in year-round territorial birds is still enigmatic, especially in tropical birds. Spotted antbirds (Hylophylax n. naevioides) defend territories in the Panamanian rainforest year-round but have low plasma T levels (0.1-0.2 ng/ml), except… CONTINUE READING