To extend our previous study on the behavioral effects of testosterone propionate (TP) and dihydrotestosterone propionate (DHTP) to a dose-range producing supra-physiological plasma androgen levels, 4 castrated cynomolgus monkeys were tested with the same 4 females during successive 4-week treatment periods while receiving 800 micrograms, 1.6 mg, 3.2 mg, 6.4 mg and 12.8 mg of TP or DHTP SC/day in counterbalanced order (16 pairs, 828 1-hr tests). Both androgens increased male sexual activity, but DHTP was less effective than TP in increasing the numbers of ejaculations per test and failed to restore ejaculations to intact levels. Giving androgen-treated males single injections of 50 micrograms and 100 micrograms estradiol benzoate (EB) was without any additional effect on behavior (16 pairs, 256 tests). To examine hormonal effects in the brain, castrated males were given either 3H-T or 3H-DHT, and tissues were examined by high performance liquid chromatography (hplc). After 3H-T, 3H-E2 and unchanged 3H-T were the major forms of radioactivity in nuclei from hypothalamus, preoptic area and amygdala. After 3H-DHT, unchanged 3H-DHT predominated. The lower behavioral effectiveness of DHT could not be ascribed to its failure to enter the brain. The data suggested a role for unchanged T in the regulation of ejaculatory behavior in a male primate.