Testing the repression hypothesis: Effects of emotional valence on memory suppression in the think – No think task

  title={Testing the repression hypothesis: Effects of emotional valence on memory suppression in the think – No think task},
  author={Anthony J. Lambert and Kimberly S. Good and Ian J. Kirk},
  journal={Consciousness and Cognition},

Figures from this paper

Emotional and non-emotional memories are suppressible under direct suppression instructions
These findings provide the first evidence that direct suppression can impair negatively valenced events, and suggest that variability in forgetting negative memories in prior studies is unlikely to arise from difficulty using direct suppression to control emotionally negative experiences.
Neural correlates underlying impaired memory facilitation and suppression of negative material in depression
It is demonstrated that depressed individuals show behavioral and ERP deviations from healthy controls for both voluntary suppression and conscious retrieval of negative memory; the two abnormalities of memory control together contribute to the difficulties in forgetting negative material in depression.
Emotions shape memory suppression in trait anxiety
It is suggested that individuals with anxiety may have difficulty exerting cognitive control over memories with a negative valence, highlighting the crucial relation between cognitive control, emotions, and individual differences in regulating emotions.
The Think/No‐Think Alcohol Task: A New Paradigm for Assessing Memory Suppression in Alcohol‐Related Contexts
A new version of the TNT paradigm is developed, the TNT Alcohol (TNTA) task, which consists of 36 neutral pictures paired with 36 alcohol/no-alcohol images that are instructed to be suppressed or recollected and results suggest that the TNTA task may be a useful instrument to measure the ability to suppress alcohol-related memories.
Does the heart forget? Modulation of cardiac activity induced by inhibitory control over emotional memories
The hypothesis that memory suppression can influence the physiological marker of emotions is tested and the modulation of cognitive representations can have long-term effects on the cardiac system, supporting the notion that cognitive control over unwanted emotional memories, when successful, can reduce the autonomic aversive processes to achieve emotional regulation.
Neural evidence that disengaging memory retrieval is modulated by stimulus valence and rumination
This study considered whether participants could exert control and disengage from a memory state when it was no longer required for the task at hand and examined whether this ability was affected by the valence of the stimuli and participant's rumination scores.
Inhibitory effects of thought substitution in the think/no-think task: Evidence from independent cues
Results revealed forgetting in both original and independent cue tests, supporting the inhibitory account of thought substitution, but only when cues were words, and not when they were non-words, pointing to the ineffectiveness of a thought substitution strategy when original cues lack semantic content.
What Doesn’t Kill You Makes You Stronger: Psychological Trauma and Its Relationship to Enhanced Memory Control
College students reporting a greater history of trauma exhibited more suppression-induced forgetting of both negative and neutral memories than did those in a matched group who had reported experiencing little to no trauma, broadly consistent with the view that moderate adversity can foster resilience later in life.
Neurophysiologic evidence for increased memory suppression among negative ruminators
The results suggest early separation of emotional and strategic control of retrieval, but later combined control over access to working memory and the positive correlation of brooding and the LC suggest that individuals who are high in application of perseverative strategies to memory retrieval will show greater modulation of the retrieval-related LC ERP.


Suppression of Emotional and Nonemotional Content in Memory
Results for both verbal and nonverbal items indicated that the facilitatory and inhibitory influences of cognitive control were larger for negative than neutral items.
Suppressing unwanted memories by executive control
It is shown that executive control processes not uniquely tied to trauma may provide a viable model for repression, and that this cognitive act has enduring consequences for the rejected memories.
Failures to find suppression of episodic memories in the think/no-think paradigm
None of the experiments showed reliable suppression effects with either the same or independent-probe tests, suggesting that suppression is apparently not a robust experimental phenomenon in the think/no-think paradigm.
Inhibition of inappropriate responses is preserved in the think-no-think and impaired in the random number generation tasks in schizophrenia
It is suggested that schizophrenia patients' difficulties to inhibit prepotent responses appear specific, not widespread, the intentional inhibition addressed in TNT being preserved, and on-line inhibition in RNG being impaired.
No need for repression
Intentional forgetting benefits from thought substitution
Evidence is provided that forgetting in the think/no-think paradigm (Anderson & Green, 2001) is sensitive to the substitution of thoughts about new events for thoughts that are to be suppressed, and the use of selfinitiated strategies seems to affect the degree of forgetting.
The unified theory of repression
  • M. Erdelyi
  • Psychology
    Behavioral and Brain Sciences
  • 2006
It has now become clear, as clinicians had claimed, that the inaccessible materials are often available and emerge indirectly (e.g., procedurally, implicitly).