Testing the racial profiling hypothesis for seemingly disparate traffic stops on the New Jersey Turnpike

@article{Lange2005TestingTR,
  title={Testing the racial profiling hypothesis for seemingly disparate traffic stops on the New Jersey Turnpike},
  author={James Evan Lange and Mark B. Johnson and Robert B. Voas},
  journal={Justice Quarterly},
  year={2005},
  volume={22},
  pages={193 - 223}
}
This paper describes two studies designed to produce benchmark values with which to compare police stop data in an effort to assess racial profiling. Racial profiling is often measured by comparing the racial and ethnic distribution from police stop rates to race and ethnicity data derived from regional census counts. However, benchmarks may be more appropriate that are based on (1) the population of drivers or (2) the population of traffic violators. This research surveyed drivers on the New… 
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This study takes a quantitative and qualitative approach to examine police stops in an Ontario city. The author finds that Black residents were over stopped by police, and the over stopping may not
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