Testing the effect of the rock record on diversity: a multidisciplinary approach to elucidating the generic richness of sauropodomorph dinosaurs through time

@article{Mannion2011TestingTE,
  title={Testing the effect of the rock record on diversity: a multidisciplinary approach to elucidating the generic richness of sauropodomorph dinosaurs through time},
  author={Philip D. Mannion and Paul Upchurch and Matthew T. Carrano and Paul M. Barrett},
  journal={Biological Reviews},
  year={2011},
  volume={86}
}
The accurate reconstruction of palaeobiodiversity patterns is central to a detailed understanding of the macroevolutionary history of a group of organisms. However, there is increasing evidence that diversity patterns observed directly from the fossil record are strongly influenced by fluctuations in the quality of our sampling of the rock record; thus, any patterns we see may reflect sampling biases, rather than genuine biological signals. Previous dinosaur diversity studies have suggested… 

How has our knowledge of dinosaur diversity through geologic time changed through research history?

TLDR
This work investigates the influence of publication history between 1991 and 2015 on the understanding of dinosaur evolution using raw diversity estimates and shareholder quorum subsampling for the three major subgroups: Ornithischia, Sauropodomorpha, and Theropoda.

Environmental and geological controls on the diversity anddistribution of the sauropodomorpha

Sauropodomorph dinosaurs were an important component of Mesozoic terrestrial ecosystems. Their diversity and abundance fluctuated throughout the Mesozoic but whether this reflects genuine

HOW DO GEOLOGICAL SAMPLING BIASES AFFECT STUDIES OF MORPHOLOGICAL EVOLUTION IN DEEP TIME? A CASE STUDY OF PTEROSAUR (REPTILIA: ARCHOSAURIA) DISPARITY

TLDR
It is found that range‐based disparity metrics are strongly affected by uneven fossil record sampling, and should therefore be interpreted cautiously, and the robustness of variance‐based metrics to sample size and geological sampling suggests that they can be more confidently interpreted as reflecting true biological signals.

An analysis of pterosaurian biogeography: implications for the evolutionary history and fossil record quality of the first flying vertebrates

TLDR
A novel model is proposed to explain pterosaurian distributions: pterosaurs underwent a series of ‘sweep-stakes’ dispersal events (across oceanic barriers in most cases), resulting in the founding of sympatric clusters of taxa.

Palaeontology meets metacommunity ecology: the Maastrichtian dinosaur fossil record of North America as a case study

Documenting the patterns and potential associated processes of ancient biotas has always been a central challenge in palaeontology. Over recent decades, intense debate has focused on the organization

The early evolution of synapsids, and the influence of sampling on their fossil record

TLDR
Assessment of synapsid diversity, at both the species and genus levels, between the Carboniferous (Moscovian) and the Middle Permian (Capitanian) calls into question previous diversity studies that have not employed sampling correction.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 208 REFERENCES

Calibrating the Ordovician Radiation of marine life: implications for Phanerozoic diversity trends.

TLDR
A global-scale sample of fossil occurrences is analyzed that allows us to determine directly the effects of sample size on the calibration of what is generally thought to be among the most significant global biodiversity increases in the history of life: the Ordovician Radiation.

Dinosaur diversity and the rock record

TLDR
Strong statistically robust correlations demonstrate that almost all aspects of ornithischian and theropod diversity curves can be explained by geological megabiases, whereas the sauropodomorph record diverges from modelled predictions and may be a stronger contender for identifying evolutionary signals.

Large-scale heterogeneity of the fossil record: implications for Phanerozoic biodiversity studies.

  • A. Smith
  • Environmental Science, Geography
    Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences
  • 2001
TLDR
Data on rock outcrop area compiled for post-Palaeozoic sediments from Western Europe at stage level are presented and show a strongly cyclical pattern corresponding to first- and second-order sequence stratigraphical depositional cycles.

THE SHAPE OF THE PHANEROZOIC MARINE PALAEODIVERSITY CURVE: HOW MUCH CAN BE PREDICTED FROM THE SEDIMENTARY ROCK RECORD OF WESTERN EUROPE?

Abstract:  Palaeodiversity curves are constructed from counts of fossils collected at outcrop and thus potentially biased by variation in the rock record, specifically by the amount of sedimentary

Effects of sampling standardization on estimates of Phanerozoic marine diversification

  • J. AlroyC. Marshall A. Webber
  • Environmental Science, Geography
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 2001
TLDR
A new database of this kind for the Phanerozoic fossil record of marine invertebrates is introduced and four substantially distinct analytical methods that estimate taxonomic diversity by quantifying and correcting for variation through time in the number and nature of inventories are applied.

THE EFFECTS OF SAMPLING BIAS ON PALAEOZOIC FAUNAS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR MACROEVOLUTIONARY STUDIES

TLDR
A discovery curve is used to document the sampling history of trilobites, which is considered aproxy for Palaeozoic faunas in general and at genus level the sampling record is incomplete, indicating that families should not be used as a proxy for gen- era.

Are global Phanerozoic marine diversity curves truly global? A study of the relationship between regional rock records and global Phanerozoic marine diversity

Abstract The consensus view that the amount of rock available for sampling does not significantly and systematically bias Phanerozoic marine diversity patterns has broken down. How changes in rock

Marine mammals through time: when less is more in studying palaeodiversity

  • F. G. Marx
  • Environmental Science, Geography
    Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
  • 2008
TLDR
Limited evidence was found for a correlation of outcrop area with marine mammal palaeodiversity, and similar patterns were identified in the cetacean and pinnipedimorph diversity data, which may point to the preservation of a genuine biological signal not overwhelmed by geological biases in the marine mammal diversity data.

Biodiversity in the Phanerozoic: a reinterpretation

Abstract Many features of global diversity compilations have proven robust to continued sampling and taxonomic revision. Inherent biases in the stratigraphic record may nevertheless substantially

Mesozoic marine tetrapod diversity: mass extinctions and temporal heterogeneity in geological megabiases affecting vertebrates

TLDR
Some evidence supports an extinction event near the Jurassic/Cretaceous boundary, but the proposed end-Cenomanian extinction is probably an artefact of poor sampling, and consideration of sampling biases allows re-evaluation of proposed mass extinction events.
...