Testing the Surge: Why Did Violence Decline in Iraq in 2007?

  title={Testing the Surge: Why Did Violence Decline in Iraq in 2007?},
  author={Stephen D. Biddle and Jeffrey A. Friedman and Jacob N. Shapiro},
  journal={International Security},
Why did violence decline in Iraq in 2007? Many policymakers and scholars credit the “surge,” or the program of U.S. reinforcements and doctrinal changes that began in January 2007. Others cite the voluntary insurgent stand-downs of the Sunni Awakening or say that the violence had simply run its course with the end of a wave of sectarian cleansing; still others credit an interaction between the surge and the Awakening. The difference matters for policy and scholarship, yet this debate has not… Expand
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  • 2020
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