Testing the Female Underperformance Hypothesis

  title={Testing the Female Underperformance Hypothesis},
  author={Anita Du Rietz and Magnus Henrekson},
  journal={Small Business Economics},
Most previous studies have found evidence at the aggregate level that female entrepreneurs underperform relative to their male counterparts. This study conducts a comprehensive test of this finding. The test is conducted on a large Swedish sample of 4200 entrepreneurs (405 females) with 1 to 20 employees in all sectors of the economy. Our study confirms the results of several previous studies that female entrepreneurs tend to underperform relative to men when the data is examined at the most… 

Challenging the female underperformance hypothesis

Purpose – The question of whether female‐owned firms underperform male‐owned firms has triggered much research and discussion. Klapper and Parker's review concluded that the majority of prior

Is gender an impediment to firm performance? Evidence from small firms in Mauritius

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to test the female entrepreneurship underperformance hypothesis using a sample of small firms. The paper also attempts to explain why gender matters in

Gender Differences in Business Success of German Start-Up Firms

Many studies found that women-owned firms underperform. The performance gap might be attributed to gender differences in personal and firm characteristics affecting performance. This paper shall

How do female entrepreneurs perform? Evidence from three developing regions

Using the World Bank Enterprise Survey data, we analyze performance gaps between male- and female-owned companies in three regions—Eastern Europe and Central Asia (ECA), Latin America (LA), and

Examining the Relationship between Female Board Members and Firm Performance - a Panel Study of US Firms

This study examines the relationship between female board members and firm performance for a panel of 250 US firms over the years 2000 and 2006 which marks an epic in gender equality and affirmative

Gender and management on Spanish SMEs: an empirical analysis

Few studies have investigated the presence of women on the boards of directors of companies. Those that have been done have focused on large firms. In this study we analyzed the gender diversity of a

Gender differences in growth of Spanish university spin-offs

The purpose of this paper is to explore the hypothesis that the female-owned university spin-off organizations (USOs) have a similar resource endowment and, as a consequence, growth rates similar to

Do Female Entrepreneurs Face More Growth Obstacles? Evidence from Latin American Countries

Among the existing studies that examine issues related to female-owned businesses (FOBs) and male-owned businesses (MOBs), much of the attention has been devoted to finding performance differences



Institutional Effects on the Evolution of the Size Distribution of Firms

In this paper it is argued that the size distribution of firms may largely be determined by institutional factors. This hypothesis is tested in an exploratory fashion by studying the evolution of the

Gender as a determinant of small business performance: Insights from a British study

The performance of small businesses, that is the ability of small firms to contribute to job and wealth creation through business start-up, survival and growth, has been an important area of policy

Gender and Organizational Performance: Determinants of Small Business Survival and Success

This research explores the effect of gender on organizational performance. Data used in the analysis was collected from small businesses in South Central Indiana from 1985-1987. The businesses were

Why More Women Are Becoming Entrepreneurs

WHY MORE WOMEN ARE BECOMING ENTREPRENEURS From 1972 to 1982 the number of self-employed women in the United States increased by 69 percent. This represented a rate of increase five times greater than

Management in Women-Owned Enterprises

MANAGEMENT IN WOMEN-OWNED ENTERPRISES According to recent statistics, women are starting small businesses at twice the rate of men, and women-owned enterprises (WOEs) now account for 25 percent of

Motivations of aspiring male and female entrepreneurs

SUMMARY This study examines the motives that stimulate individuals into becoming business proprietors. More specifically, it aims to discover if entrepreneurs have multiple motives for creating their

Research on Women Business Owners: Past Trends, a New Perspective and Future Directions

The number of women starting and owning their own businesses has grown dramatically over the past decade. Concurrent with this trend, there has been an increase in the number of research studies


ABSTRACT This paper examines the extent to which there are sex differences in the experience, education, and motivation of small Canadian retailers and service providers. It explores the manner in

Management Practices of Successful Female Business Owners

This research project examines management techniques used by 58 female owners of small businesses in three eastern metropolitan areas. Data indicate that financially successful women owners delegate

Sex Differences and Risk-Taking Propensity of Entrepreneurs

ABSTRACT: RAPPORTS ENTRE LE SEXE DES ENTREPRENEURS ET LEURS TENDANCES A PRENDRE DES RISQUES Il a ete souvent suggere que les entrepreneurs etaient enclins a prendre plus de risques que les gerants,